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Liang C.-J.,National Taiwan University | Wang S.-H.,National Taiwan University | Chen Y.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chang S.-S.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 5 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Viscolin, a major active component in a chloroform extract of Viscum coloratum, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. We focused on its effects on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The TNF-α-induced expression of VCAM-1 was significantly reduced by respectively 38 ± 7 or 34 ± 16% when HUVECs were pretreated with 10 or 30 μM viscolin, as shown by Western blotting, and was also significantly reduced by pretreatment with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine, diphenylene iodonium chloride, and apocynin. Viscolin also reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA expression and promoter activity, decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, and significantly reduced the binding of monocytes to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The attenuation of TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression and cell adhesion was partly mediated by a decrease in JNK phosphorylation. Furthermore, viscolin reduced VCAM-1 expression in the aorta of TNF-α-treated mice in vivo. Taken together, these data show that viscolin inhibits TNF-α-induced JNK phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, and ROS generation and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression, resulting in reduced adhesion of leukocytes. These results also suggest that viscolin may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wang Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Rogan W.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chen P.-C.,Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene | Chen P.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2014

Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic compounds that are widely used in industry and are often detectable in humans. In pregnant rats and their pups, PFASs can interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In humans, maternal thyroid hormones supply the fetus throughout pregnancy, and thyroid hormones play a critical role in fetal growth and neurodevelopment. Objectives: We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and thyroid hormone status in pregnant women and neonates. Methods: In a study of environmental exposure and health in Taiwan, we measured serum concentrations of nine PFASs and four thyroid hormones for 285 pregnant women in their third trimester, and also measured cord serum thyroid hormones for 116 neonates. Associations between maternal PFASs and maternal and cord thyroid hormones were examined in multiple linear regression models. Results: Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid concentrations were positively associated with maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Pregnant women with higher levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) had lower free thyroxine (T4) and total T4 levels. For example, we estimated that maternal free T4 levels decreased 0.019 ng/dL (95% CI: -0.028, -0.009) with each nanogram per milliliter increase in maternal PFNA. Finally, maternal PFNA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA levels were associated with lower cord total triiodothyronine (T3) and total T4 levels, and maternal perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA) was associated with lower cord total T3. Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure to some PFASs during pregnancy may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis in pregnant women and fetuses.

Chan C.-C.,Hsinchu Cathay General Hospital | Chan C.-C.,Taipei Medical University | Fan C.-W.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Kuo Y.-B.,Chang Gung University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to initiate a survey of human autoantibody responses to a panel of select colorectal tumorassociated antigens identified by previous serological analysis of a cDNA expression library and to subsequently identify multiple serological biomarkers for the detection of colorectal cancer. For screening of autoantibodies against colorectal tumor-associated antigens, sera from 94 colorectal cancer patients and 54 normal controls were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant rCCCAP, rHDAC5, rP53, rNMDAR and rNY-CO-16 proteins as coating antigens. Seropositivity among colorectal cancer patients to the 5 individual coating antigens varied from 18.1% to 35.1%. Seropositivity to any of the 5 coating antigens was 58.5% and combining this analysis with evaluation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (≥5 ng/ml) significantly increased the seropositivity to 77.6%. Seropositivity of early-stage (Dukes' Stages A and B) colorectal cancer patients to CEA was 21.9%, and seropositivity to any of the 5 colorectal cancer-associated antigens was 53.7%, and the combination of these 2 measurements resulted in a higher diagnostic capacity (65.9%) than either marker alone. In conclusion, these results collectively indicated that combined detection of serum autoantibody profiles against our panel of colorectal tumor-associated antigens and the analysis of carcinoembryonic antigen provides a promising diagnostic biomarker for colorectal cancer, particularly among early-stage patients. © 2009 UICC.

Chang H.-H.,Chung Shan Medical University | Lin D. P.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Chen Y.-S.,Hsinchu Cathay General Hospital | Lin W.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Vision | Year: 2011

Purpose: Hyperhomocysteinemia is known to cause degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, but its influence on photoreceptors remains largely unknown. In particular, the role of homocysteine-thiolactone (Hcy-T)-the physiologic metabolite of homocysteine that has been proven to be more cytotoxic than homocysteine itself-as a factor that causes retinopathy, has not been defined. This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of excessive Hcy-T in a mouse model. Methods: A total of 60 six-week-old female ICR mice were used in this study. The mice were divided into 3 experimental groups and 2 control groups. The mice in the experimental groups were subjected to intravitreal injections of Hcy-T to reach final estimated intravitreal concentrations at 5, 25, and 200 μM, respectively. Mice without injection (blank) and with 0.9 NaCl injections (sham injection) were used as controls. The mice with 200 μM Hcy-T were sacrificed at days 7, 15, 45, and 90 after injection and the mice with 5 or 25 μM Hcy-T were sacrificed at day 90, with the controls sacrificed at day 15 or 90 for comparison. Semi-quantitative dot-blot analysis was performed for confirmation of retinal homocysteinylation. The mouse retinas were evaluated microscopically, with the thickness of total and specific retinal layers determined. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed and the labeled cells were quantified to determine the effects of excessive Hcy-T on specific retinal cells. Results: Dose-dependent retinal homocysteinylation after Hcy-T injection was confirmed. The homocysteinylation was localized in the outer and inner segments of photoreceptors and the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Retinal cell degenerations were found in the GCL, inner nuclear layer, and outer nuclear layer at day 90 after 200 μM Hcy-T injection. Significant thickness reduction was found in the total retina, outer nuclear layer, and the outer and inner segment layers. A trend of thickness reduction was also found in the GCL and inner nuclear layer, although this was not statistically significant. The rhodopsin+ photoreceptors and the calbindin+ horizontal cells were significantly reduced at day 15, and were nearly ablated at day 90 after 200 μM Hcy-T injection (p<0.001 for both day 15 and day 90), which was not seen in the sham injection controls. The Chx-10+ or the Islet-1+ bipolar cells and the Pax-6+ amacrine cells were severely misarranged at day 90, but no significant reduction was found for both cell types. The GFAP+ Müller cells were activated at day 15, but were not significantly increased at day 90 after the injection. Conclusions: Excessive retinal homocysteinylation by Hcy-T, a condition of hyperhomocysteinemia, could lead to degeneration of photoreceptors, which might lead to retinopathies associated with severe hyperhomocysteinemia or diabetes mellitus.Received: April 1, 2011Accepted: July 14, 2011. © 2011 Molecular Vision.

Chang C.-Y.,Hsinchu Cathay General Hospital | Tang C.-H.,Taipei Medical University | Chen K.-C.,Taipei Medical University | Huang K.-C.,Taipei Medical University
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2016

Summary: This study estimated the fracture-related mortality and direct medical costs among postmenopausal women in Taiwan by fracture types and age groups by utilizing a nationwide population-based database. Results demonstrated that hip fractures constituted the most severe and expensive complication of osteoporosis across fracture sites. Introduction: The aims of the study were to evaluate the risk of death and direct medical costs associated with osteoporotic fractures by fracture types and age groups among postmenopausal women in Taiwan. Methods: This nationwide, population-based study was based on data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Female patients aged 50 years and older in the fracture case cohort were matched in 1:1 ratio with randomly selected subjects in the reference control cohort by age, income-related insurance amount, urbanization level, and the Charlson comorbidity index. There were two main outcome measures of the study: age-differentiated mortality and direct medical costs in the first and subsequent years after osteoporotic fracture events among postmenopausal women. The bootstrap method by resampling with replacement was conducted to generate descriptive statistics of mortality and direct medical costs of the case and control cohorts. Student’s t tests were then performed to compare mortality and costs between the two cohorts. Results: A total of 155,466 postmenopausal women in the database met the inclusion criteria for the fracture case cohort, including 22,791 hip fractures, 72,292 vertebral fractures, 15,621 upper end humerus (closed) fractures, 36,774 wrist fractures, and 7,988 multiple fractures. Analytical results demonstrated that patients experiencing osteoporotic fractures were at considerable excess risk of death and incurred substantially higher treatment costs, notably for hip fractures. Furthermore, results also revealed that the risk of mortality increased with advancing age across the spectrum of fracture sites. Conclusions: The present study confirmed an excess mortality and higher direct medical costs associated with osteoporotic fractures. Moreover, hip fractures constituted the most severe and expensive complication of osteoporosis among fracture types. © 2015, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

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