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Seattle, WA, United States

Johnson S.G.,University of Colorado at Denver | Johnson S.G.,Kaiser Permanente | Gruntowicz D.,Genelex Corporation | Gruntowicz D.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy is an established standard of care for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to reduce thrombotic risk. Reduced CYP2C19 activity impairs clopidogrel bio-activation and increases risk of adverse clinical outcomes. Patients with poor and intermediate CYP2C19 metabolizers treated with clopidogrel incur higher cardiovascular event rates, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and stent thrombosis, following ACS than patients with normal CYP2C19 function. Tests are available to identify the CYP2C19 genotype and can be used to support individualization of antiplatelet therapy. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the financial impact of CYP2C19 genotyping in a theoretical cohort of 1,000 patients with ACS, who received percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary stent implantation and were treated with clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor in a managed care setting. METHODS: Differences in overall and average cost per patient were estimated based on the rate of CYP2C19 genotyping in a theoretical cohort of 1,000 patients. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for varying costs, adherence, and the percentage of patients treated according to genotyping results. All clinical event costs were reported in terms of 2012 U.S. dollars. The budget impact analysis used published event rates from primary literature to estimate costs of events analysis for 3 different scenarios: Scenario A, no CYP2C19 genotyping; Scenario B, 50% of patients received CYP2C19 genotyping with appropriate treatment based on genotype; and Scenario C, 100% of patients received CYP2C19 genotyping with appropriate treatment based on genotype. RESULTS: According to this model, there was no change in the market share for the 3 antiplatelet agents in Scenario A. Initial market share for clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor was 93%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; however, use of CYP2C19 genotyping is expected to shift market share from clopidogrel to either prasugrel or ticagrelor. In Scenario B, where 50% of the patients received genotyping, clopidogrel market share was reduced to 83%, while prasugrel increased to 12.1% and ticagrelor increased to 4.9%. In Scenario C, where all patients received genotyping, clopidogrel market share was reduced to 73%, prasugrel increased to 19.3%, and ticagrelor increased to 7.7%. Total estimated cost differences when all possible patients were genotyped included annual savings of roughly $444,852. CONCLUSIONS: Important financial benefits may be realized through use of genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy to reserve prasugrel or ticagrelor use for patients with reduced CYP2C19 activity to avoid costs associated with adverse cardiac events. © 2015, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. Source


Patent
Genelex Corporation | Date: 2014-01-24

A computerized tool and method for delivery of pharmacogenetic and pharmacological information, comprising a core system having algorithms and databases for storing, collating, accessing, cross-referencing, and interpreting genetic and pharmacologic data, with a graphical user interface for a client network of providers of laboratory genetic testing services to access the core services under contract. The system includes paypoints in support of improved business models. Included are mechanisms for pass through third party and insurance reimbursement for interpretive reports, insurance reimbursement for on-line access to pharmacogenetic information at the point of care, tools for market segmentation, and a conversion tool for capturing new subscribers. Also disclosed are tools and predictive algorithms for preventing drug-drug and drug-gene adverse drug reactions.


Patent
Genelex Inc | Date: 2011-12-09

A computerized tool and method for delivery of pharmacogenetic and pharmacological information, comprising a core system having algorithms and databases for storing, collating, accessing, cross-referencing, and interpreting genetic and pharmacologic data, with a graphical user interface for a client network of providers of laboratory genetic testing services to access the core services under contract. The system includes paypoints in support of improved business models. Included are mechanisms for pass through third party and insurance reimbursement for interpretive reports, insurance reimbursement for on-line access to pharmacogenetic information at the point of care, tools for market segmentation, and a conversion tool for capturing new subscribers. Also disclosed are tools and predictive algorithms for preventing drug-drug and drug-gene adverse drug reactions.


Patent
GENELEX Corporation | Date: 2012-10-08

A computerized tool and method for delivery of pharmacogenetic and pharmacological information, comprising a core system having algorithms and databases for storing, collating, accessing, cross-referencing, and interpreting genetic and pharmacologic data, with a graphical user interface for a client network of providers of laboratory genetic testing services to access the core services under contract. The system includes paypoints in support of improved business models. Included are mechanisms for pass through third party and insurance reimbursement for interpretive reports, insurance reimbursement for on-line access to pharmacogenetic information at the point of care, tools for market segmentation, and a conversion tool for capturing new subscribers. Also disclosed are tools and predictive algorithms for preventing drug-drug and drug-gene adverse drug reactions.


Examples described herein include methods and systems for improving accuracy of prediction of substance-factor interactions in patients. Example systems may improve drug interaction prediction for a patient taking a drug by comparing computationally predicted changes in AUC for interaction pairs involving the same metabolic pathways as the drug with change in AUC information from clinical data (e.g. clinical studies). A correction factor for use in the computational prediction may be identified which improves the accuracy of the computational predictions relative to the clinical data. The correction factor may be used to provide improved computational predictions of the change in AUC for a drug, when clinical data may be unavailable. There may be no need for a correction factor if a clinical study is available. The improved computational prediction may be used to set and/or change the amount or identity of the drug administered to a patient.

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