Time filter

Source Type

Gaithersburg, MD, United States

Wuchty S.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information | Arjona D.,GeneDx Inc. | Bauer P.O.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2013

We computationally determined miRs that are significantly connected to molecular pathways by utilizing gene expression profiles in different cancer types such as glioblastomas, ovarian and breast cancers. Specifically, we assumed that the knowledge of physical interactions between miRs and genes indicated subsets of important miRs (IM) that significantly contributed to the regression of pathway-specific enrichment scores. Despite the different nature of the considered cancer types, we found strongly overlapping sets of IMs. Furthermore, IMs that were important for many pathways were enriched with literature-curated cancer and differentially expressed miRs. Such sets of IMs also coincided well with clusters of miRs that were experimentally indicated in numerous other cancer types. In particular, we focused on an overlapping set of 99 overall important miRs (OIM) that were found in glioblastomas, ovarian and breast cancers simultaneously. Notably, we observed that interactions between OIMs and leading edge genes of differentially expressed pathways were characterized by considerable changes in their expression correlations. Such gains/losses of miR and gene expression correlation indicated miR/gene pairs that may play a causal role in the underlying cancers. Source

Kimonis V.E.,University of California at Irvine | Singh K.E.,University of California at Irvine | Zhong R.,Yale University | Pastakia B.,Veterans Administrations Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2013

Purpose:Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, spine and rib anomalies, and falx cerebri calcification. Current diagnostic criteria are suboptimal when applied to pediatric populations, as most common symptoms often do not begin to appear until teenage years.Methods:We studied minor and major clinical features in 30 children/teenagers and compared the findings with 75 adults from 26 families with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.Results:Fifty percent of children/teenagers and 82% of adults had at least one basal cell carcinoma. Jaw cysts occurred in 60% of children/teenagers and 81% of adults. Palmar/plantar pits were the most frequent feature seen in affected individuals at all ages. Macrocephaly was seen in 50% of affected and 8% of unaffected children/teenagers. Frontal bossing, hypertelorism, Sprengel deformity, pectus deformity, and cleft lip/palate were seen among affected children/teenagers but not among their unaffected siblings. Falx calcification, the most frequent radiological feature, was present in 37% of individuals <20 and 79% of those >20 years.Conclusion:We report clinical and radiological manifestations of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome in children/teenagers, many of whom lacked major features such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, and falx calcification. Evaluations for palmar/plantar pits, craniofacial features, and radiological manifestations permit early diagnosis and optimum surveillance.Genet Med 2013:15(1):79-83. © American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Source

Miguel-Blanco C.,Glaxosmithkline | Lelievre J.,Glaxosmithkline | Delves M.J.,Imperial College London | Bardera A.I.,Glaxosmithkline | And 7 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

In response to a call for the global eradication of malaria, drug discovery has recently been extended to identify compounds that prevent the onward transmission of the parasite, which is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum stage V gametocytes. Lately, metabolic activity has been used in vitro as a surrogate for gametocyte viability; however, as gametocytes remain relatively quiescent at this stage, their ability to undergo onward development (gamete formation) may be a better measure of their functional viability. During gamete formation, female gametocytes undergo profound morphological changes and express translationally repressed mRNA. By assessing female gamete cell surface expression of one such repressed protein, Pfs25, as the readout for female gametocyte functional viability, we developed an imaging-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify transmission-blocking compounds. This assay, designated the P. falciparum female gametocyte activation assay (FGAA), was scaled up to a high-throughput format (Z′ factor, 0.7 ± 0.1) and subsequently validated using a selection of 50 known antimalarials from diverse chemical families. Only a few of these agents showed submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations in the assay: thiostrepton, methylene blue, and some endoperoxides. To determine the best conditions for HTS, a robustness test was performed with a selection of the GlaxoSmithKline Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS) and the final screening conditions for this library were determined to be a 2 μM concentration and 48 h of incubation with gametocytes. The P. falciparum FGAA has been proven to be a robust HTS assay faithful to Plasmodium transmission-stage cell biology, and it is an innovative useful tool for antimalarial drug discovery which aims to identify new molecules with transmission-blocking potential. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Wuchty S.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information | Arjona D.,GeneDx Inc. | Bozdag S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bauer P.O.,U.S. National Cancer Institute
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Collecting representative sets of cancer microRNAs (miRs) from the literature we show that their corresponding families are enriched in sets of highly interacting miR families. Targeting cancer genes on a statistically significant level, such cancer miR families strongly intervene with signaling pathways that harbor numerous cancer genes. Clustering miR family-specific profiles of pathway intervention, we found that different miR families share similar interaction patterns. Resembling corresponding patterns of cancer miRs families, such interaction patterns may indicate a miR family's potential role in cancer. As we find that the number of targeted cancer genes is a naïve proxy for a cancer miR family, we design a simple method to predict candidate miR families based on gene-specific interaction profiles. Assessing the impact of miR families to distinguish between (non-)cancer genes, we predict a set of 84 potential candidate families, including 75 of initially collected cancer miR families. Further confirming their relevance, predicted cancer miR families are significantly indicated in increasing, non-random numbers of tumor types. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Jones D.,University of Vermont | Fiozzo F.,University of Vermont | Waters B.,University of Vermont | McKnight D.,GeneDx Inc. | Brown S.,University of Vermont
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2014

We describe a first-trimester ultrasound examination in which the finding of fetal encephalocele and the cystic appearance of the kidneys raised suspicion of Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS). On the basis of sonographic findings, the patient elected termination of pregnancy, and post-termination studies using next-generation sequencing of a gene panel revealed two mutations (one previously described and the other novel) in the gene CC2D2A. Mutations in CC2D2A are known to cause MKS and Joubert syndrome, thus providing molecular confirmation of the clinical suspicion of MKS and opening the possibility for future prenatal diagnosis. This case highlights the ability to detect important anomalies in the first trimester using ultrasound, even in low-risk situations. It also demonstrates the growing role of new sequencing technologies in fetal testing. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Source

Discover hidden collaborations