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Choi Y.H.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics | Kim J.H.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics | Kim D.-H.,Seoul National University | Jang K.-S.,Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics | And 3 more authors.
Glycobiology | Year: 2014

In the large-quantity production of α2,3- and α2,6- sialyllactose (Neu5Ac(α2,3)Galβ1,4Glc (3′-SL) and Neu5Ac(α2,6)Galβ1,4Glc (6′-SL)) using sialyltransferases (STs), there are major hurdles to overcome for further improvement in yield and productivity of the enzyme reactions. Specifically, Pasteurella multocida α2,3-sialyltransferase (α2,3PST) forms a by-product to a certain extent, owing to its multifunctional activity at pH below 7.0, and Photobacterium damselae α2,6-sialyltransferase (α2,6PdST) shows relatively low ST activity. In this study, α2,3PST and α2,6PdST were successfully engineered using a hybrid approach that combines rational design with site-saturation mutagenesis. Narrowly focused on the substrate-binding pocket of the STs, putative functional residues were selected by multiple sequence alignment and alanine scanning, and subsequently subjected to site-saturation mutagenesis. In the case of α2,3PST, R313N single mutation improved its activity slightly (by a factor of 1.5), and further improvement was obtained by making the double mutants (R313N/T265S and R313H/T265S) resulting in an overall 2-fold improvement in its specific α2,3 ST activity, which is mainly caused by the increase in kcat. It was revealed that the R313 mutations to N, D, Y, H or T greatly reduced the α2,6 ST side-reaction activity of α2,3PST at below pH 7.0. In the case of α2,6PdST, single-mutation L433S/T and double-mutation I411T/L433T exhibited 3- and 5-fold enhancement of the α2,6 ST-specific activity compared with the wild-type, respectively, via increase in kcat values. Our results show a very good model system for enhancing ST activity and demonstrate that the generated mutants could be used efficiently for the mass production of 3′-SL and 6′-SL with enhanced productivity and yield. © The Author 2013.

Lee J.-H.,Sun Moon University | Pandey R.P.,Sun Moon University | Kim D.,GeneChem | Sohng J.K.,Sun Moon University
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering | Year: 2013

Bacteroides fragilis is a clinically important anaerobic pathogen present in the human gastrointestinal tract and is involved in a high number of anaerobic peritoneal infections. The complete genome sequence of B. fragilis NCTC 9343 revealed the presence of several putative fucosyltransferase gene homologues known as alpha-1,3-fucosyltransferases (α-1,3-FucTs). However, their expression and functional activities have not been studied. Here, we report the molecular cloning, functional expression, and characterization of the alpha-1,3-fucosyltransferase 3 (α-1,3-FucT3) enzyme from B. fragilis NCTC 9343. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach was used to clone the 331 amino acid long (MW, ∼39 kDa) PCR product encoding fucosyltransferase enzyme. The enzyme had low identity of 30-40% with other known α-1,3-FucTs from Azospirillum sp, Rickettsia bellii, and different strains of Helicobacter pylori. An in vitro enzyme reaction analysis showed the ability of the enzyme to transfer the fucose moiety from guanosine-5′-diphosphate β-l-fucose to the N-acetyllactosamine to produce Lewis X. The reaction product, Lewis X was confirmed by thin layer chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. © 2013 The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhang W.,Shanghai University | Zhu Q.,Shanghai University | Zhang T.,Shanghai University | Cai Q.,Shanghai University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Ara h 2 was purified from peanuts that were thermally treated by various processes, including boiling, glycation, frying and roasting. The allergenicity of Ara h 2 in Balb/c mice and the influence of thermal processing on the structural characteristics, and binding capacity of three core antigenic epitopes were studied. The results demonstrated that boiling, glycation and frying induced the down-regulation of the allergenicity of Ara h 2 in Balb/c mice, the collapse of its tertiary/secondary structure, and a reduction in the core epitope binding capacity; roasting showed a comparable allergenicity and the weakest inhibitory effect on core epitope binding capacity. These results indicate that thermal processing causes alteration of the protein structure and core epitopes of Ara h 2, and may affect its allergenicity. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Parajuli P.,Convergent | Pandey R.P.,Convergent | Gurung R.B.,Convergent | Shin J.Y.,Convergent | And 3 more authors.
Glycoconjugate Journal | Year: 2016

Epothilone A is a derivative of 16-membered polyketide natural product, which has comparable chemotherapeutic effect like taxol. Introduction of sialic acids to these chemotherapeutic agents could generate interesting therapeutic glycoconjugates with significant effects in clinical studies. Since, most of the organisms biosynthesize sialic acids in their cell surface, they are key mediators in cellular events (cell-cell recognition, cell-matrix interactions). Interaction between such therapeutic sugar parts and cellular polysaccharides could generate interesting result in drugs like epothilone A. Based on this hypothesis, epothilone A glucoside (epothilone A 6-O-β-D-glucoside) was further decorated by conjugating enzymatically galactose followed by sialic acids to generate epothilone A 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl, 4′-O-α-D-galactoside i.e., lactosyl epothilone A (lac epoA) and two sialosides of epothilone A namely epothilone A 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl, 4′-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl 3″-O-α-N-acetyl neuraminic acid and epothilone A 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl, 4′-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl 6″-O-α-N-acetylneuraminic acid i.e., 3′sialyllactosyl epothilone A: 3′SL-epoA, and 6′sialyllactosyl epothilone A: 6′SL-epoA, respectively. These synthesized analogs were spectroscopically analyzed and elucidated, and biologically validated using HUVEC and HCT116 cancer cell lines. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Yang Y.-H.,Seoul National University | Kang Y.-B.,Seoul National University | Kim D.-H.,GeneChem | Lee T.-H.,Seoul National University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic | Year: 2010

Production of deoxy-thymidine-diphosphate (TDP)-sugars as substrates of glycosyltransferases, has been one of main hurdles for combinatorial antibiotic biosynthesis, which combines sugar moiety with aglycon of various antibiotics. Here, we report the one-pot enzymatic synthesis of TDP-2-deoxy-glucose employing high efficient TMP kinase (TMK; E.C., acetate kinase (ACK; E.C., and TDP-glucose synthase (TGS; E.C. with phosphomannomutase (PMM; E.C. In this study, replacing phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E.C. 5.4.2) by PMM from Escherichia coli gave four times higher specific activity on 2-deoxy-6-phosphate glucose, suggesting that the activity on 2-deoxy-glucose-6-phosphate was mainly affected by PMM activity, not PGM activity. Using an in vitro system starting from TMP and 2-deoxy-glucose-6-phosphate glucose, TDP-2-deoxy-glucose (63% yield) was successfully synthesized. Considering low productivity of NDP-sugars from cheap starting materials, this paper showed how production of NDP-sugars could be enhanced by controlling mutase activity. © 2009.

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