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Kongju, South Korea

Kwon I.H.,Seoul National University | Kim M.H.,Seoul National University | Yun C.-H.,Seoul National University | Go J.Y.,Nonghyup Feed Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on the level of cortisol hormone and immune-related serum proteins in weaned calves after experimentally induced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Holstein neonatal calves (n=21; 8 males and 13 females, BW=42.2±6.15 kg) were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: SBM (control calf starter having soybean meal (SBM) as a main protein source) and FSBM (substitute SBM in control diet with FSBM) groups. All calves were fed milk replacer using an automatic milk-feeder according to step-down milking method and weaned at 7 weeks old. Experimental diets were given to calves ad libitum throughout the experimental period. For LPS challenge, all calves except negative control animals given phosphate buffered saline (PBS), were injected subcutaneously with Salmonella typhimurium LPS on day 7 (D7) after weaning (D0). No significant difference in growth performance and milk intake was observed between SBM and FSBM calves. Feeding FSBM diet resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher LPS-specific IgG at D12 and D19 and LPS-specific IgA at D19 in peripheral blood. Calves fed with FSBM diet also had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentration of serum haptoglobin (Hp) at D8. Overall concentration of cortisol in FSBM group was considerably lower than that of SBM group. Results from current study indicate that FSBM may provide beneficial effects in alleviating weaning stress and enhance immune status of weaned calves. Source

Seo J.K.,Seoul National University | Park T.S.,Seoul National University | Kwon I.H.,Seoul National University | Kwon I.H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 4 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

A facultative bacterium producing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the rumen of a native Korean goat. The bacterium was identified as a Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of biochemical and morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences, and has been designated Bacillus licheniformis JK7. Endoglucanase activities were higher than those of β-glucosidase and xylanase at all temperatures. Xylanase had the lowest activity among the three enzymes examined. The optimum temperature for the enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis JK7 was 70°C for endoglucanase (0.75 U/ml) and 50°C for β-glucosidase and xylanase (0.63 U/ml, 0.44 U/ml, respectively). All three enzymes were stable at a temperature range of 20 to 50°C. At 50°C, endoglucanse, β-glucosidase, and xylanase had 90.29, 94.80, and 88.69% residual activity, respectively. The optimal pH for the three enzymes was 5.0, at which their activity was 1.46, 1.10, and 1.08 U/ml, respectively. The activity of all three enzymes was stable in the pH range of 3.0 to 6.0. Endoglucanase activity was increased 113% by K+, while K+, Zn+, and tween 20 enhanced β-glucosidase activity. Xylanase showed considerable activity even in presence of selected chemical additives, with the exception of Mn2+ and Cu2+. The broad range of optimum temperatures (20 to 40°C) and the stability under acidic pH (4 to 6) suggest that the cellulolytic enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis JK7 may be good candidates for use in the biofuel industry. Copyright © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source

Lee S.H.,Kangwon National University | Shinde P.L.,Kangwon National University | Choi J.Y.,Kangwon National University | Kwon I.K.,Kangwon National University | And 4 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

This experiment investigated the effects of dietary tannic acid (TA) supplementation on growth performance, hematology, plasma iron status, and faecal microflora in weanling pigs. One hundred and eighty male pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc; 6.485±0.66 kg; 21±3 day) were randomly allotted to one of five treatments (4 pens per treatment; 9 piglets per pen) on the basis of initial body weight. The basal diet was formulated without any additional iron in the premix. The treatment diets were supplemented with 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg TA/kg. The supplemental levels of TA were obtained by adding albumin tannate containing 500 g TA/kg to the diets. The trial lasted for 28 days. Faeces were collected on days 14 and 28 and the population of total anaerobic bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium spp. and coliform bacteria were counted. Two pigs from each pen were bled at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experiment to determine blood hematology and plasma Fe status. An increase in TA concentration reduced linearly overall average daily gain (P<0.001), feed efficiency (P=0.021), faecal coliform count (day 14, P=0.014) and tended to reduce feed intake (P=0.088). The excretion of Fe in faeces was higher (linear, P=0.005) in pigs fed TA diets. Total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit on days 21 and 28 and plasma iron concentration on day 21 were linearly reduced (P<0.05) with increased levels of TA. Additionally, TA reduced the faecal coliform bacteria count (linear, P=0.014) at day 14 and had no influence on the other faecal bacteria. It is concluded that inclusion of TA in the diet had a negative impact on performance, hematological indices and plasma iron status of pigs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kim S.W.,North Carolina State University | van Heugten E.,North Carolina State University | Ji F.,Texas Tech University | Lee C.H.,GENEBIOTECH CO. | Mateo R.D.,Texas Tech University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Four experiments were conducted using 671 nursery pigs to evaluate fermented soybean meal (FSBM) as a new vegetable protein source for nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 192 pigs weaned at 19.2 ± 0.3 d of age were fed 3 diets (8 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM) and 2 diets with 3 and 6% FSBM replacing soybean meal, followed by a common diet for the next 2 wk. In Exp. 2, a total of 160 pigs weaned at 21.6 ± 0.2 d of age were fed 4 diets (5 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM but with 25% dried skim milk; DSM) and 3 diets with 3, 6, and 9% FSBM replacing DSM based on CP. Concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were kept consistent among diets in Exp. 1 and 2. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 pigs weaned at 22.1 ± 0.2 d of age were fed 3 diets (6 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM but with 40% DSM) and 2 diets with 5 and 10% FSBM replacing DSM based on CP. Concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, and lactose were kept consistent among diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 175 pigs weaned at 20.7 ± 0.4 d of age were fed 5 diets (5 pens per treatment) for 3 wk: a basal diet [15.5% CP without plasma protein (PP) and FSBM], 2 diets (18.4% CP) with 3.7% PP or 4.9% FSBM, and 2 diets (21.2% CP) with 7.3% PP or 9.8% FSBM. Concentrations of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were kept consistent among diets with the same CP concentrations. Pigs had access to feed and water ad libitum and their BW and feed intake were measured weekly for all experiments. Use of up to 6% FSBM replacing soybean meal improved (P < 0.05) G:F and diarrhea scores of nursery pigs (Exp. 1). Use of up to 9% FSBM replacing DSM reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F (Exp. 2). When lactose concentrations were equal, FSBM could replace up to 10% DSM without adverse effects on ADG and G:F (Exp. 3). Relative bioavailability of protein in FSBM to PP was 99.1% (Exp. 4). Collectively, FSBM can serve as an alternative protein source for nursery pigs at 3 to 7 wk of age, possibly replacing the use of DSM and PP but excluding the first week postweaning for PP when balancing for AA and lactose. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science. Source


Genebiotech Co. | Date: 2008-05-27

Fermented soybeans.

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