Upadhaya S.D.,Research Institute for Agriculture and Life science |
Song J.Y.,Research Institute for Agriculture and Life science |
Park M.A.,Research Institute for Agriculture and Life science |
Seo J.K.,Research Institute for Agriculture and Life science |
And 6 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012
The potential for ochratoxin A (OTA) degradation by swine intestinal microbiota was assessed in the current study. Intestinal content that was collected aseptically from swine was spiked with 100 ppb OTA and incubated for 6 and 12 h at 39°C. An OTA assay was conducted using the incubated samples, and it was found that 20% of the OTA toxin was detoxified, indicating the presence of microbes capable of OTA degradation. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated anaerobically in M 98-5 media and 45 bacterial species were isolated using nutrient broth aerobically. Screening results showed that one anaerobic bacterial isolate, named MM 11, detoxified more than 75% of OTA in liquid media. Furthermore, 1.0 ppm OTA was degraded completely after 24 h incubation on a solid 'corn' substrate. The bacterium was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as having 97% sequence similarity with Eubacterium biforme. The isolation of an OTA-degrading bacterium from the swine natural flora is of great importance for OTA biodegradation and may be a valuable potential source for OTA-degradation enzymes in industrial applications.
Seo J.K.,Seoul National University |
Park T.S.,Seoul National University |
Kwon I.H.,Seoul National University |
Kwon I.H.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign |
And 4 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013
A facultative bacterium producing cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the rumen of a native Korean goat. The bacterium was identified as a Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of biochemical and morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences, and has been designated Bacillus licheniformis JK7. Endoglucanase activities were higher than those of β-glucosidase and xylanase at all temperatures. Xylanase had the lowest activity among the three enzymes examined. The optimum temperature for the enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis JK7 was 70°C for endoglucanase (0.75 U/ml) and 50°C for β-glucosidase and xylanase (0.63 U/ml, 0.44 U/ml, respectively). All three enzymes were stable at a temperature range of 20 to 50°C. At 50°C, endoglucanse, β-glucosidase, and xylanase had 90.29, 94.80, and 88.69% residual activity, respectively. The optimal pH for the three enzymes was 5.0, at which their activity was 1.46, 1.10, and 1.08 U/ml, respectively. The activity of all three enzymes was stable in the pH range of 3.0 to 6.0. Endoglucanase activity was increased 113% by K+, while K+, Zn+, and tween 20 enhanced β-glucosidase activity. Xylanase showed considerable activity even in presence of selected chemical additives, with the exception of Mn2+ and Cu2+. The broad range of optimum temperatures (20 to 40°C) and the stability under acidic pH (4 to 6) suggest that the cellulolytic enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis JK7 may be good candidates for use in the biofuel industry. Copyright © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.
Kim M.H.,Seoul National University |
Yun C.H.,Seoul National University |
Lee C.H.,Genebiotech Co. |
Ha J.K.,Seoul National University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012
The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented SBM (FSBM) on immunophysiological and stress-related parameters in Holstein calves after weaning. Eighteen Holstein calves were randomly assigned to receive either SBM or FSBM (5% of SBM was replaced with FSBM) calf starter and calves were weaned at 42. d of age. It was noted that FSBM contained a lower content of trypsin inhibitor but higher crude protein, amino acids, and small-sized peptides than those of SBM. The group fed FSBM calf starter significantly increased body weight gain and intakes of both feed and milk, when compared with those fed SBM calf starter at 4. wk of age. Calves fed the FSBM calf starter had significantly lower fecal scores than those fed the SBM calf starter during both pre- and postweaning periods. Calves also had better health scores when fed the FSBM calf starter than those fed SBM during the preweaning period. Weaning challenge significantly increased proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels at 1. d postweaning (DPW). The TNF-α and IL-6 levels of the SBM group were significantly higher compared with those of the FSBM group at 3 DPW. Acute phase proteins (serum amyloid A and haptoglobin) in the serum were increased after weaning. Concentrations of serum amyloid A and haptoglobin in calves fed FSBM calf starter were significantly lower than those fed the SBM calf starter at 3 and 5 DPW, respectively. The concentration of cortisol was significantly lower in the FSBM group than that of the SBM group at 3 DPW. Weaning stress did not cause drastic changes in the total serum immunoglobulin levels and composition of peripheral lymphocytes. Our results indicate that FSBM may not only improve growth performance, feed intake, and health conditions during the preweaning period, but also alleviate stress responses, which was indicated by reduced induction of stress hormone, proinflammatory cytokines, and acute phase proteins in Holstein calves after weaning. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.
Lee S.H.,Kangwon National University |
Shinde P.L.,Kangwon National University |
Choi J.Y.,Kangwon National University |
Kwon I.K.,Kangwon National University |
And 4 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010
This experiment investigated the effects of dietary tannic acid (TA) supplementation on growth performance, hematology, plasma iron status, and faecal microflora in weanling pigs. One hundred and eighty male pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc; 6.485±0.66 kg; 21±3 day) were randomly allotted to one of five treatments (4 pens per treatment; 9 piglets per pen) on the basis of initial body weight. The basal diet was formulated without any additional iron in the premix. The treatment diets were supplemented with 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg TA/kg. The supplemental levels of TA were obtained by adding albumin tannate containing 500 g TA/kg to the diets. The trial lasted for 28 days. Faeces were collected on days 14 and 28 and the population of total anaerobic bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium spp. and coliform bacteria were counted. Two pigs from each pen were bled at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the experiment to determine blood hematology and plasma Fe status. An increase in TA concentration reduced linearly overall average daily gain (P<0.001), feed efficiency (P=0.021), faecal coliform count (day 14, P=0.014) and tended to reduce feed intake (P=0.088). The excretion of Fe in faeces was higher (linear, P=0.005) in pigs fed TA diets. Total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit on days 21 and 28 and plasma iron concentration on day 21 were linearly reduced (P<0.05) with increased levels of TA. Additionally, TA reduced the faecal coliform bacteria count (linear, P=0.014) at day 14 and had no influence on the other faecal bacteria. It is concluded that inclusion of TA in the diet had a negative impact on performance, hematological indices and plasma iron status of pigs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kwon I.H.,Seoul National University |
Kim M.H.,Seoul National University |
Yun C.-H.,Seoul National University |
Go J.Y.,Nonghyup Feed Inc. |
And 4 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on the level of cortisol hormone and immune-related serum proteins in weaned calves after experimentally induced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Holstein neonatal calves (n=21; 8 males and 13 females, BW=42.2±6.15 kg) were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: SBM (control calf starter having soybean meal (SBM) as a main protein source) and FSBM (substitute SBM in control diet with FSBM) groups. All calves were fed milk replacer using an automatic milk-feeder according to step-down milking method and weaned at 7 weeks old. Experimental diets were given to calves ad libitum throughout the experimental period. For LPS challenge, all calves except negative control animals given phosphate buffered saline (PBS), were injected subcutaneously with Salmonella typhimurium LPS on day 7 (D7) after weaning (D0). No significant difference in growth performance and milk intake was observed between SBM and FSBM calves. Feeding FSBM diet resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher LPS-specific IgG at D12 and D19 and LPS-specific IgA at D19 in peripheral blood. Calves fed with FSBM diet also had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentration of serum haptoglobin (Hp) at D8. Overall concentration of cortisol in FSBM group was considerably lower than that of SBM group. Results from current study indicate that FSBM may provide beneficial effects in alleviating weaning stress and enhance immune status of weaned calves.
Li H.L.,Dankook University |
Zhao P.Y.,Dankook University |
Lei Y.,Dankook University |
Hossain M.M.,Dankook University |
And 2 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016
We conducted this 10-wk experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary phytoncide, Korean pine extract as phytogenic feed additive (PFA), on growth performance, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 160 pigs ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc, body weight (BW) = 58.2±1.0 kg) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their BW and sex, 10 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs per pen were used (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Dietary treatments were: CON, control diet; PT2, CON+0.02% PFA; PT4, CON+0.04% PFA; PT6, CON+0.06% PFA. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) was higher in PT4 (p<0.05) than in PT6, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was lower in PT6 than in CON (p<0.05). Besides ADFI decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide and gain:feed ratio in PT4 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON treatment. During 5 to 10 weeks and overall, quadratic (p<0.05) effect was observed in ADG among the treatments. At the end of this experiment, pigs fed with PT4 diet had a greater (p<0.05) red blood cell concentration compared to the pigs fed CON diet. Water holding capacity increased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide supplementation. Moreover, firmness, redness, yellowness, and drip loss at day 3 decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increase in the level of phytoncide supplementation. In conclusion, inclusion of phytoncide could enhance growth performance without any adverse effects on meat quality in finishing pigs. Copyright © 2016 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.
Kim S.W.,North Carolina State University |
van Heugten E.,North Carolina State University |
Ji F.,Texas Tech University |
Lee C.H.,Genebiotech Co. |
Mateo R.D.,Texas Tech University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010
Four experiments were conducted using 671 nursery pigs to evaluate fermented soybean meal (FSBM) as a new vegetable protein source for nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 192 pigs weaned at 19.2 ± 0.3 d of age were fed 3 diets (8 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM) and 2 diets with 3 and 6% FSBM replacing soybean meal, followed by a common diet for the next 2 wk. In Exp. 2, a total of 160 pigs weaned at 21.6 ± 0.2 d of age were fed 4 diets (5 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM but with 25% dried skim milk; DSM) and 3 diets with 3, 6, and 9% FSBM replacing DSM based on CP. Concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were kept consistent among diets in Exp. 1 and 2. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 pigs weaned at 22.1 ± 0.2 d of age were fed 3 diets (6 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM but with 40% DSM) and 2 diets with 5 and 10% FSBM replacing DSM based on CP. Concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, and lactose were kept consistent among diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 175 pigs weaned at 20.7 ± 0.4 d of age were fed 5 diets (5 pens per treatment) for 3 wk: a basal diet [15.5% CP without plasma protein (PP) and FSBM], 2 diets (18.4% CP) with 3.7% PP or 4.9% FSBM, and 2 diets (21.2% CP) with 7.3% PP or 9.8% FSBM. Concentrations of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were kept consistent among diets with the same CP concentrations. Pigs had access to feed and water ad libitum and their BW and feed intake were measured weekly for all experiments. Use of up to 6% FSBM replacing soybean meal improved (P < 0.05) G:F and diarrhea scores of nursery pigs (Exp. 1). Use of up to 9% FSBM replacing DSM reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F (Exp. 2). When lactose concentrations were equal, FSBM could replace up to 10% DSM without adverse effects on ADG and G:F (Exp. 3). Relative bioavailability of protein in FSBM to PP was 99.1% (Exp. 4). Collectively, FSBM can serve as an alternative protein source for nursery pigs at 3 to 7 wk of age, possibly replacing the use of DSM and PP but excluding the first week postweaning for PP when balancing for AA and lactose. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.
So K.-H.,Tohoku University |
Suzuki Y.,Shinshu University |
Yonekura S.,Shinshu University |
Suzuki Y.,Tohoku University |
And 4 more authors.
Nutrition Research and Practice | Year: 2015
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fermented soybean (FS) extract on adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation using cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with FS and nonfermented soybean (NFS) extract during differentiation for 10 days in vitro. Oil red O staining was performed and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity was measured for analysis of fat accumulation. Expressions of adipogenic genes were measured. RESULTS: Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 contained higher levels of low-molecular-weight protein than conventional soybean protein did. FS extract (50 μg/ml) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes for 10 days in vitro. Significantly lower GPDH activity was observed in differentiated adipocytes treated with the FS extract than those treated with NFS extract. Treatment with FS extract resulted in decreased expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and adipogenin genes, which are associated with adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: This report is the first to demonstrate that the water-soluble extract from FS inhibits fat accumulation and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, the soybean extract fermented with A. oryzae GB107 could be used to control lipid accumulation in adipocytes. © 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition.
PubMed | Shinshu University, Tohoku University, Genebiotech Co. and North Carolina State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition research and practice | Year: 2015
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fermented soybean (FS) extract on adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation using cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes.3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with FS and nonfermented soybean (NFS) extract during differentiation for 10 days in vitro. Oil red O staining was performed and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity was measured for analysis of fat accumulation. Expressions of adipogenic genes were measured.Soluble extract of soybean fermented with Aspergillus oryzae GB107 contained higher levels of low-molecular-weight protein than conventional soybean protein did. FS extract (50 g/ml) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes for 10 days in vitro. Significantly lower GPDH activity was observed in differentiated adipocytes treated with the FS extract than those treated with NFS extract. Treatment with FS extract resulted in decreased expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and adipogenin genes, which are associated with adipogenesis.This report is the first to demonstrate that the water-soluble extract from FS inhibits fat accumulation and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, the soybean extract fermented with A. oryzae GB107 could be used to control lipid accumulation in adipocytes.
PubMed | Genebiotech Co., Dankook University, C&K Genomics and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2016
Acute respiratory virus infectious diseases are a growing health problem, particularly among children and the elderly. Much effort has been made to develop probiotics that prevent influenza virus infections by enhancing innate immunity in the respiratory tract until vaccines are available. Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP2, isolated from a traditional Korean fermented vegetable, has exhibited preventive effects on influenza virus infection in mice. To identify the molecular basis of this strain, we conducted a whole-genome assembly study. The single circular DNA chromosome of 3,284,304 bp was completely assembled and 3,250 proteinencoding genes were predicted. Evolutionarily accelerated genes related to the phenotypic trait of anti-infective activities for influenza virus were identified. These genes encode three integral membrane proteins, a teichoic acid export ATP-binding protein and a glucosamine - fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase involved in host innate immunity, the nonspecific DNA-binding protein Dps, which protects bacteria from oxidative damage, and the response regulator of the three-component quorum-sensing regulatory system, which is related to the capacity of adhesion to the surface of the respiratory tract and competition with pathogens. This is the first study to identify the genetic backgrounds of the antiviral activity in L. plantarum strains. These findings provide insight into the anti-infective activities of L. plantarum and the development of preventive probiotics.