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Colin S.,Gene Signal Research Center | Guilmain W.,Gene Signal Research Center | Creoff E.,Gene Signal Research Center | Schneider C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins known to contribute to angiogenesis. CD9 partner-1 (CD9P-1/EWI-F), a glycosylated type 1 transmembrane immunoglobulin, is a member of the tetraspanin web, but its role in angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. Methods: We measured the expression of CD9P-1 under angiogenic and angiostatic conditions, and the influence of its knockdown onto capillary structures formation by human endothelial cells (hECs). A truncated form of CDP-1, GS-168AT2, was produced and challenged vs hEC proliferation, migration and capillaries formation. Its association with CD9P-1, CD9, CD81 and CD151 and the expressions of these later at hEC surface were analysed. Finally, its effects onto in vivo tumour-induced angiogenesis and tumour growth were investigated. Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced capillary tube-like formation was inhibited by tumour necrosis factor α and was associated with a rise in CD9P-1 mRNA expression (P<0.05); accordingly, knockdown of CD9P-1 inhibited VEGF-dependent in vitro angiogenesis. GS-168AT2 dose-dependently inhibited in vitro angiogenesis, hEC migration and proliferation (P<0.05). Co-precipitation experiments suggest that GS-168AT2 corresponds to the sequence by which CD9P-1 physiologically associates with CD81. GS-168AT2 induced the depletion of CD151, CD9 and CD9P-1 from hEC surface, correlating with GS-168AT2 degradation. Finally, in vivo injections of GS-168AT2 inhibited tumour-associated angiogenesis by 53.49.5% (P=0.03), and reduced tumour growth of Calu 6 tumour xenografts by 73.9±16.4% (P=0.007) without bodyweight loss. Conclusion: The truncated form of CD9P-1, GS-168AT2, potently inhibits angiogenesis and cell migration by at least the downregulation of CD151 and CD9, which provides the first evidences for the central role of CD9P-1 in tumour-associated angiogenesis and tumour growth. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Guilmain W.,Gene Signal Research Center | Colin S.,Gene Signal Research Center | Legrand E.,Groupe de Recherche MERCI EA 3829 | Vannier J.P.,Groupe de Recherche MERCI EA 3829 | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Loss of CD9 expression has been correlated with a higher motility and metastatic potential of tumour cells originating from different organs. However, the mechanism underlying this loss is not yet understood. Methods: We produced a truncated form of partner 1 of CD9 (CD9P-1), GS-168AT2, and developed a new monoclonal antibody directed towards the latter. We measured the expression of CD9 and CD9P-1 in human lung tumours (hLTs), and monitored the level of CD9 in NCI-H460, in vitro and in vivo, in the presence and absence of GS-168AT2. Results: Loss of CD9 is inversely related to the expression of CD9P-1, which correlates with the metastatic status of hLT (n=55). In vitro, GS-168AT2 is rapidly internalised and degraded at both the membrane and cytoplasm of NCI-H460, and this correlates with the association of GS-168AT2 with both CD9 and CD81. Intraperitoneal injections of GS-168AT2 in NCI-H460-xenografted Nude mice led to drastic inhibition of tumour growth, as well as to the downregulation of CD9, but not of CD81, in the tumour core. Conclusion: These findings show for the first time that CD9P-1 expression positively correlates with the metastatic status of hLT, and that the upregulation of CD9P-1 expression could be one of the mechanisms underlying the loss of CD9 in solid tumours. Our study also reveals that, under certain conditions, loss of CD9 could be a tumour growth-limiting phenomenon rather than a tumour growth-promoting one. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

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