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Pretoria, South Africa

Tarantino N.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Tinevez J.-Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Crowell E.F.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Boisson B.,Rockefeller University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) essential modulator (NEMO), a regulatory component of the IkB kinase (IKK) complex, controls NF-κB activation through its interaction with ubiquitin chains. We show here that stimulation with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF induces a rapid and transient recruitment of NEMO into punctate structures that are anchored at the cell periphery. These structures are enriched in activated IKK kinases and ubiquitinated NEMO molecules, which suggests that they serve as organizing centers for the activation of NF-kappa;B. These NEMO-containing structures colocalize with activated TNF receptors but not with activated IL-1 receptors. We investigated the involvement of nondegradative ubiquitination in the formation of these structures, using cells deficient in K63 ubiquitin chains or linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC)-mediated linear ubiquitination. Our results indicate that, unlike TNF, IL-1 requires K63-linked and linear ubiquitin chains to recruit NEMO into higher-order complexes. Thus, different mechanisms are involved in the recruitment of NEMO into supramolecular complexes, which appear to be essential for NF-κB activation. © 2014 Tarantino et al. Source


Fanucchi S.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group
Nucleus (Austin, Tex.) | Year: 2014

Chromatin loops are pervasive and permit the tight compaction of DNA within the confined space of the nucleus. Looping enables distal genes and DNA elements to engage in chromosomal contact, to form multigene complexes. Advances in biochemical and imaging techniques reveal that loop-mediated contact is strongly correlated with transcription of interacting DNA. However, these approaches only provide a snapshot of events and therefore are unable to reveal the dynamics of multigene complex assembly. This highlights the necessity to develop single cell-based assays that provide single molecule resolution, and are able to functionally interrogate the role of chromosomal contact on gene regulation. To this end, high-resolution single cell imaging regimes, combined with genome editing approaches, are proving to be pivotal to advancing our understanding of loop-mediated dynamics. Source


Fanucchi S.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Shibayama Y.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Mhlanga M.M.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Mhlanga M.M.,University of Lisbon
Nucleus (United States) | Year: 2014

Chromatin loops are pervasive and permit the tight compaction of DNA within the confined space of the nucleus. Looping enables distal genes and DNA elements to engage in chromosomal contact, to form multigene complexes. Advances in biochemical and imaging techniques reveal that loop-mediated contact is strongly correlated with transcription of interacting DNA. However, these approaches only provide a snapshot of events and therefore are unable to reveal the dynamics of multigene complex assembly. This highlights the necessity to develop single cell-based assays that provide single molecule resolution, and are able to functionally interrogate the role of chromosomal contact on gene regulation. To this end, high-resolution single cell imaging regimes, combined with genome editing approaches, are proving to be pivotal to advancing our understanding of loop-mediated dynamics. © 2014 Landes Bioscience. Source


Fanucchi S.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Shibayama Y.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Burd S.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Weinberg M.S.,University of Witwatersrand | And 3 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

Transcription of coregulated genes occurs in the context of long-range chromosomal contacts that form multigene complexes. Such contacts and transcription are lost in knockout studies of transcription factors and structural chromatin proteins. To ask whether chromosomal contacts are required for cotranscription in multigene complexes, we devised a strategy using TALENs to cleave and disrupt gene loops in a well-characterized multigene complex. Monitoring this disruption using RNA FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that perturbing the site of contact had a direct effect on transcription of other interacting genes. Unexpectedly, this effect on cotranscription was hierarchical, with dominant and subordinate members of the multigene complex engaged in both intra- and interchromosomal contact. This observation reveals the profound influence of these chromosomal contacts on the transcription of coregulated genes in a multigene complex. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Barichievy S.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Barichievy S.,Astrazeneca | Naidoo J.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Mhlanga M.M.,Gene Expression and Biophysics Group | Mhlanga M.M.,University of Lisbon
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2015

On October 28th 1943 Winston Churchill said "we shape our buildings, and afterward our buildings shape us" (Humes, 1994). Churchill was pondering how and when to rebuild the British House of Commons, which had been destroyed by enemy bombs on May 10th 1941. The old House had been small and insufficient to hold all its members, but was restored to its original form in 1950 in order to recapture the "convenience and dignity" that the building had shaped into its parliamentary members. The circular loop whereby buildings or dwellings are shaped and go on to shape those that reside in them is also true of pathogens and their hosts. As obligate parasites, pathogens need to alter their cellular host environments to ensure survival. Typically pathogens modify cellular transcription profiles and in doing so, the pathogen in turn is affected, thereby closing the loop. As key orchestrators of gene expression, non-coding RNAs provide a vast and extremely precise set of tools for pathogens to target in order to shape the cellular environment. This review will focus on host non-coding RNAs that are manipulated by the infamous intracellular pathogen, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We will briefly describe both short and long host non-coding RNAs and discuss how HIV gains control of these factors to ensure widespread dissemination throughout the host as well as the establishment of lifelong, chronic infection. © 2015 Barichievy, Naidoo and Mhlanga. Source

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