Cell and Gene Therapy Center
Cell and Gene Therapy Center
Francis J.S.,Cell and Gene Therapy Center |
Strande L.,Cell and Gene Therapy Center |
Pu A.,Cell and Gene Therapy Center |
Leone P.,Cell and Gene Therapy Center
GLIA | Year: 2011
Aspartoacylase (ASPA) is an enzyme that functions to catabolize the neuronal amino acid derivative N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (NAA). Loss of this function results in the failure of developmental myelination. NAA synthesis and catabolism are tightly compartmentalized within neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively, and there is evidence to suggest the developmental regulation of ASPA activity is transcriptional. NAA has no known direct physiological mode of action, and the identification of a transcriptional regulator of aspa would provide an opportunity to link NAA to relatively more characterized physiological contexts with a view to definitive functional classification. Using transcriptional and immunohistochemical endpoints, we define a window of postnatal development punctuated by increases in aspa within a pre-existing population of oligodendrocytes in the rat brain. Ontological mining of expression data generated in aspa-null rats during this developmental window identifies both neuronal and oligodendroglial transcriptional abnormalities that suggest an association between glutamatergic synaptic activity and ASPA. Glutamate, but not NAA, is shown to activate endogenous aspa expression in vitro, and endogenous aspa expression is upregulated in the brains of animals over expressing vesicular glutamate transporter type-I (vglut1). These results define a discrete period of postnatal development within which glutamate provides a means by which the tightly compartmentalized NAA metabolic cycle can function in sync with normal development and may be a factor in pathological models of dysregulated NAA metabolism. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Jungebluth P.,European Airway Institute |
Jungebluth P.,Karolinska University Hospital |
Alici E.,Cell and Gene Therapy Center |
Baiguera S.,European Airway Institute |
And 30 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011
Tracheal tumours can be surgically resected but most are an inoperable size at the time of diagnosis; therefore, new therapeutic options are needed. We report the clinical transplantation of the tracheobronchial airway with a stem-cell-seeded bioartificial nanocomposite. A 36-year-old male patient, previously treated with debulking surgery and radiation therapy, presented with recurrent primary cancer of the distal trachea and main bronchi. After complete tumour resection, the airway was replaced with a tailored bioartificial nanocomposite previously seeded with autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cells via a bioreactor for 36 h. Postoperative granulocyte colony-stimulating factor filgrastim (10 μg/kg) and epoetin beta (40 000 UI) were given over 14 days. We undertook flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy epigenetics, multiplex, miRNA, and gene expression analyses. We noted an extracellular matrix-like coating and proliferating cells including a CD105+ subpopulation in the scaffold after the reseeding and bioreactor process. There were no major complications, and the patient was asymptomatic and tumour free 5 months after transplantation. The bioartificial nanocomposite has patent anastomoses, lined with a vascularised neomucosa, and was partly covered by nearly healthy epithelium. Postoperatively, we detected a mobilisation of peripheral cells displaying increased mesenchymal stromal cell phenotype, and upregulation of epoetin receptors, antiapoptotic genes, and miR-34 and miR-449 biomarkers. These findings, together with increased levels of regenerative-associated plasma factors, strongly suggest stem-cell homing and cell-mediated wound repair, extracellular matrix remodelling, and neovascularisation of the graft. Tailor-made bioartificial scaffolds can be used to replace complex airway defects. The bioreactor reseeding process and pharmacological-induced site-specific and graft-specific regeneration and tissue protection are key factors for successful clinical outcome. European Commission, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, StratRegen, Vinnova Foundation, Radiumhemmet, Clinigene EU Network of Excellence, Swedish Cancer Society, Centre for Biosciences (The Live Cell imaging Unit), and UCL Business. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.