Le N.D.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory |
Le N.D.,The University of Da nang |
France X.,GEMCEA |
Pontvianne S.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory |
And 4 more authors.
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2017
To relate population structure and activity to wastewater volume and composition, field trials were conducted at the outlets of two urban catchments that have different population structures (residential-only and mixed). Macropollution and metal micropollution were both considered. In the residential-only catchment, a diurnal pattern with a morning peak (at 10:00) and an evening peak (at 20:00, corresponding to dinner) was observed for all seasons. No difference was observed throughout the year; patterns in summer days, in which daily mobility out of the catchments should be reduced, were similar to those observed in other seasons. For both catchments, N-NH4 (from urine) and chemical oxygen demand (from urine and grey water) correlated with Cu, Zn, Al, Fe and Mn but not with alkaline earth metals. The observed diurnal pattern is associated with work and school mobility and with the general lifestyle of the population. Such an approach is useful to model expected domestic pollution patterns, with respect to lifestyle changes in the future. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Pasquini L.,University of Lorraine |
Munoz J.-F.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology |
Rimlinger N.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology |
Dauchy X.,Nancy Laboratory for Hydrology |
And 3 more authors.
Chemical Papers | Year: 2013
Everyday domestic activity is a significant source of water pollution. The presence of six household micropollutants in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was assessed in wastewater and sludge. A multi-target analytical method was developed for the quantification of ibuprofen, erythromycin, ofloxacin, 4-nonylphenol, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (triclosan), and sucralose. The micropollutants were extracted from the liquid and solid phases and their concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. The efficiency of micropollutants' removal within a conventional activated sludge process was assessed. From 50 % to 90 % of ibuprofen and erythromycin was removed from the wastewater liquid phase. Their removal can be attributed to biological degradation as they were not found adsorbed on the outlet sludge. Ofloxacin and triclosan were removed from the liquid phase with similar efficiencies; however, they were adsorbed on the sludge, so it was not possible to determine their removal mechanism (whether biodegradation or displacement to solid phase/sequestration). Sucralose was not removed from wastewater (3 μg L -1 in inlet and outlet liquid phase) and not adsorbed on the sludge. 4-Nonylphenol concentrations were sometimes higher in the WWTP outlet water; this may relate to the degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates in the wastewater treatment process. 4-Nonylphenol was always present in the outlet sludge. © 2013 Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences.
Pallares A.,University of Strasbourg |
Fischer S.,UBERTONE |
France X.,GEMCEA |
Pons M.N.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory |
Schmitt P.,University of Strasbourg
Flow Measurement and Instrumentation | Year: 2015
This paper focuses on the use of the raw acoustical turbidity and velocity data as a flow online monitoring tool. Its aim is to demonstrate that, with adequate instrumental settings, interesting results can directly be seen on the raw data. As illustration, some experimental results on a combined acoustic turbidity and velocity analysis on a river are shown. It demonstrates the great potential of the acoustic measurements in sediment transport studies by the combined information on velocity and turbidity. Another application is the study of a wastewater collector inlet for which the comparison with standard measurement methods is possible. The acoustic turbidity raw data can easily be used for qualitative suspended solids concentration studies. It is also shown that more accurate results on the water height can be obtained through the acoustic turbidity. © 2015.
Bouarab A.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory |
Bouarab A.,Veolia |
Baudin-Bizien I.,Veolia |
France X.,GEMCEA |
And 2 more authors.
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2014
The efficiency of an in-line stormwater physic-chemical treatment system combining sand removal, flocculation-coagulation and subsequent settling has been assessed by simulation. Such a system is designed to both reduce the discharge of pollution during storm events in receiving water bodies and to avoid disturbances on the downstream wastewater treatment plant. The stormwater treatment model, based on an existing system, is combined to the Benchmark Simulation Model 2 wastewater treatment plant. It is demonstrated that such a stormwater treatment system can improve the wastewater treatment plant performance by reducing the violations of the effluent quality constraints, but that such improvement is mostly due to a hydraulic effect. © IFAC.
Joannis C.,Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees |
Ruban G.,Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees |
Aumond M.,Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees |
Bertrand-Krajewski J.-L.,INSA Lyon |
And 4 more authors.
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2010
This paper presents possible objectives for turbidity monitoring in sewerage, and provides details on key issues for getting reliable and accurate turbidity measurements. It relies on the experience gathered during their field work by four French research teams. The topics considered here are the choice of a sensor, calibration procedures, the choice of a measuring site, different in situ implementation modes, sampling strategy, maintenance and uncertainty assessment. A brief description of a few case studies follow up this overview.
Gutierrez A.,University of Lorraine |
Zhang Y.,University of Lorraine |
Assaad A.,University of Lorraine |
France X.,GEMCEA |
And 2 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2014
Two field fluorometers, devoted either to natural organic matter (NOM) or to tryptophan-like fluorescing substances, were tested for the characterization of a large set of water samples (n = 263) impacted to various degrees by untreated or poorly treated urban sewage. Both fluorometers yielded consistent results when testing discrete samples. A nonlinear correlation (coefficient of determination = 0.98) was found between the tryptophan concentration given by the tryptophan field fluorometer and the fluorescence intensity given by a bench-top fluorometer (excitation = 285 nm, emission = 335 nm), corresponding to tryptophan-like fluorescing substances. A linear correlation with a mediocre coefficient of determination (0.63) was found between the NOM concentration given by the NOM field fluorometer and the fluorescence intensity given by the benchtop fluorometer (excitation = 355 nm, emission = 405 nm). This could be related to the diversity of NOM present, as illustrated by the different shapes of synchronous fluorescence spectra collected for the same samples. © 2014 IWA Publishing.
Schwager J.,Cerema Direction Territoriale Est |
Irles A.,Cerema Direction Territoriale Est |
Thiriat J.,Cerema Direction Territoriale Est |
Claverie R.,Gemcea |
And 2 more authors.
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2014
The French market for vegetative roofs is continuing to develop rapidly and more than one million square meters were built in 2011. If these structures can offer various functions, not all green roofs have the same advantages and preliminary thinking is required to conceive a suitable system. The CETE de l'Est -LRPC de Nancy has launched a research project on vegetative roofs in autumn 2010 to establish guidelines for the construction of vegetative roofs with optimized abilities to retain pollutants, enhance biodiversity and improve thermal insulation. This article is dedicated to these first two functions. It describes the approach for the structures' conception and presents in situ and in laboratory results. These results allow identification of first tracks for the selection of materials with optimized ability to improve water quality. The introduction of local plant species has also shown a good implantation and development during these first two years. In addition, information allowing the actors of this sector to take into account these elements in a vegetative roof project is signaled. It could help the building owners to focus their choice toward a vegetative roof suited to the functions that they are expecting.
Pons M.N.,University of Lorraine |
Potier O.,University of Lorraine |
Pontvianne S.,University of Lorraine |
Laurent N.,GEMCEA |
And 2 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011
In order to characterize the pollution discharged into the Moselle River and some of its tributaries, spectroscopic techniques, namely UV-vis spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, have been combined. UV-visible spectra were analysed using the maximum of the second derivative at 225 nm (related to nitrates), the SUVA254 and E2/E3 indices (related to the nature of organic matter). Synchronous fluorescence spectra (Δλ = 50 nm) presented different shapes depending upon the type of pollution. The pollution results from anthropogenic activities: untreated domestic sewage due to misconnections in a periurban river, effluent from urban WWTPs, agricultural runoff (nitrates) in several streams, discharge from a paper mill (humic-like substances due to wood processing) and from steel mills (PAHs). © IWA Publishing 2011.
Pasquini L.,CNRS Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Continental Environments |
Munoz J.-F.,Laboratoire Dhydrologie Of Nancy |
Pons M.-N.,University of Lorraine |
Yvon J.,CNRS Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Continental Environments |
And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014
The occurrence in urban wastewater of eight micropollutants (erythromycin, ibuprofen, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), ofloxacin, sucralose, triclosan, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) originating from household activities and their fate in a biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated. Their concentrations were assessed in the liquid and solid phases (sewage particulate matter and wasted activated sludge (WAS)) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.The analysis of sewage from two different urban catchments connected to the WWTP showed a specific use of ofloxacin in the mixed catchment due to the presence of a hospital, and higher concentrations of sucralose in the residential area.The WWTP process removed over 90% of ibuprofen and triclosan from wastewater, while only 25% of ofloxacin was eliminated. Erythromycin, sucralose and PFOA were not removed from wastewater, the influent and effluent concentrations remaining at about 0.7. μg/L, 3. μg/L and 10. ng/L respectively. The behavior of PFOS and 4-nonylphenol was singular, as concentrations were higher at the WWTP outlet than at its inlet. This was probably related to the degradation of some of their precursors (such as alkylphenol ethoxylates and polyfluorinated compounds resulting in 4-NP and PFOS, respectively) during biological treatment.4-NP, ofloxacin, triclosan and perfluorinated compounds were found adsorbed on WAS (from 5. ng/kg for PFOA to 1.0. mg/kg for triclosan).The statistical methods (principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions) were applied to examine relationships among the concentrations of micropollutants and macropollutants (COD, ammonium, turbidity) entering and leaving the WWTP. A strong relationship with ammonium indicated that some micropollutants enter wastewater via human urine. A statistical analysis of WWTP operation gave a model for estimating micropollutant output from the WWTP based on a measurement of macropollution parameters. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | University of Lorraine and GEMCEA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2014
Two field fluorometers, devoted either to natural organic matter (NOM) or to tryptophan-like fluorescing substances, were tested for the characterization of a large set of water samples (n = 263) impacted to various degrees by untreated or poorly treated urban sewage. Both fluorometers yielded consistent results when testing discrete samples. A nonlinear correlation (coefficient of determination = 0.98) was found between the tryptophan concentration given by the tryptophan field fluorometer and the fluorescence intensity given by a bench-top fluorometer (excitation = 285 nm, emission = 335 nm), corresponding to tryptophan-like fluorescing substances. A linear correlation with a mediocre coefficient of determination (0.63) was found between the NOM concentration given by the NOM field fluorometer and the fluorescence intensity given by the bench-top fluorometer (excitation = 355 nm, emission = 405 nm). This could be related to the diversity of NOM present, as illustrated by the different shapes of synchronous fluorescence spectra collected for the same samples.