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Herrling T.,University of Applied Sciences, Berlin | Jung K.,Gematria Test Laboratory
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2012

Synopsis: A scale of skin treatments is analysed, which bases on the detection of UV-generated free radicals in pig skin. Physiological and anatomical similarities between man and pig made this animal a good model for man in many research areas. The determination of the Radical Status (free radical response) offers the possibility to see in an early stage the effect of exterior and interior influences. The detection of the skin's response after a normalized radical generation by defined UV dose combined with the application of external and internal influences enables a comprehensive and easy classification of skin products and therapies. The effect of substances, especially, applied topically on the skin, like it is usual in cosmetics and pharmacy, can be classified. The relevance of the RSF method is demonstrated with the application of numerous different treatments on the skin. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie. Source


Herrling T.,University of Applied Sciences, Berlin | Herrling T.,Gematria Test Laboratory | Jung K.,Gematria Test Laboratory
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2012

A scale of skin treatments is analysed, which bases on the detection of UV-generated free radicals in pig skin. Physiological and anatomical similarities between man and pig made this animal a good model for man in many research areas. The determination of the Radical Status (free radical response) offers the possibility to see in an early stage the effect of exterior and interior influences. The detection of the skin's response after a normalized radical generation by defined UV dose combined with the application of external and internal influences enables a comprehensive and easy classification of skin products and therapies. The effect of substances, especially, applied topically on the skin, like it is usual in cosmetics and pharmacy, can be classified. The relevance of the RSF method is demonstrated with the application of numerous different treatments on the skin. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie. Source


Wang S.Q.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Osterwalder U.,BASF | Jung K.,Gematria Test Laboratory
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Background: UVA induces tissue damage via the production of radical oxygen species. Adding antioxidants to UV filters in sunscreens is a novel photoprotective strategy. The topical application of antioxidants in sunscreen can potentially neutralize the UVA-induced free radicals. Objectives: We sought to assess the degree of free radical protection offered by sunscreens with antioxidants and attempted to differentiate the contribution of free radical protection from that of the UV filters. Method: Twelve sunscreen products were purchased. The degree of UVA protection (UVA-PF) was measured via an in vitro assay according to a European guideline (Colipa). In addition, an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy-based assay was used to measure the radical skin protection factor (RSF) and antioxidant power (AP) of each product. Results: The sun protection factor (SPF) values of the sunscreens ranged from 15 to 55, and the UVA-PF values ranged from 2.4 to 28.2. The RSF values ranged from 2.4 to 27.1. There is a high correlation between RSF and UVA-PF. The AP values for nearly all the products were 0, and two products (#4 and #9) had very low AP values of 16 and 12, respectively. Limitations: The study only evaluated a small number of sunscreen products, and only ex vivo and in vitro methods were used to assess the products. Conclusions: The idea of combining UV filters with antioxidants is appealing. Current sunscreen products on the market offer free radical protection, but the majority of the radical protection is from UV filters rather than antioxidants. © 2010 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Source


Piazena H.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Pittermann W.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Muller W.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Jung K.,Gematria Test Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2014

The effects of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) and of convective heat on viability, inflammation, inducible free radicals and antioxidative power were investigated in natural and viable skin using the ex vivo Bovine Udder System (BUS) model. Therefore, skin samples from differently treated parts of the udder of a healthy cow were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) measurement and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Neither cell viability, the inflammation status, the radical status or the antioxidative defence systems of the skin were significantly affected by wIRA applied within 30 min by using an irradiance of 1900 W m-2 which is of relevance for clinical use, but which exceeded the maximum solar IR-A irradiance at the Earth's surface more than 5 times and which resulted in a skin surface temperature of about 45 °C without cooling and of about 37°C with convective cooling by air ventilation. No significant effects on viability and on inflammation were detected when convective heat was applied alone under equivalent conditions in terms of the resulting skin surface temperatures and exposure time. As compared with untreated skin, free radical formation was almost doubled, whereas the antioxidative power was reduced to about 50% after convective heating to about 45°C. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Herrling T.,Gematria Test Laboratory | Seifert M.,Gematria Test Laboratory | Sandig G.,Gematria Test Laboratory | Jung K.,Gematria Test Laboratory
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2016

Synopsis Objective Cosmetic formulations are influenced by environmental impacts and ageing, resulting in rancidity and change of colour and structure. These changes are caused by free radicals (FRs). The sensitivity of cosmetics generating FRs is a metric for its quality and should be determined. Methods Electron spin resonance spectroscopy in combination with UV irradiation tested cosmetics such as creams, milks, lotions and fragrances. The probes were directly measured without expensive preparation. Results Nine formulations are tested for its radical generation and ranked corresponding to the radical power. The transformation of the FR properties of three formulations to skin is measured by the radical skin status factor (RSF) method. It shows that the higher the radical power (RP) is, the lower the radical status RSF of skin will be. Conclusion The knowledge of the sensitivity of cosmetics to generate FRs is necessary for its stabilization and prevention of potential damages to skin. It is a new way in development of cosmetics which has to be considered. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists. Source

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