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Carmichael, CA, United States

Chen L.,University of California at Riverside | Chen L.,China Agricultural University | Zhao T.,University of California at Riverside | Pan C.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Low levels of pesticides and their metabolites/degradates occur in produce when pesticides are used in conventional or organic crop protection. Human dietary and nonoccupational urine biomonitoring studies may be confounded by preformed pesticide biomarkers in the diet. The extent of formation of putative urine biomarkers, including malathion specific (MMA, MDA; malathion mono- and diacids), organophosphorus generic (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP; dimethyl-, dimethylthio-, and dimethydithiophosphate), pyrethroid generic (3-PBA; 3-phenoxybenzoic acid), and captan-specific metabolites (THPI; tetrahydrophthalimide), was measured in produce samples containing the parent pesticide. Every produce sample of 19 types of fruits and vegetables contained biomarkers of potential human exposure. A total of 134 of 157 (85%) samples contained more molar equivalent biomarkers than parent pesticide. Malathion and fenpropathrin were sprayed (1 lb/A), and the time-dependent formation of pesticide biomarkers in strawberries was investigated under field conditions typical of commercial production in California. Malathion and fenpropathrin residues were always below established residue tolerances. Malathion, MMA, and MDA dissipated, while DMP, DMTP, and DMDTP increased, during a 20 day study period following the preharvest interval. The mole ratios of biomarkers/(malathion + malaoxon) were always greater than 1 and increased from day 4 to day 23 postapplication. Fenpropathrin and 3-PBA also dissipated in strawberries during each monitoring period. The mole ratios of 3-PBA/fenpropathrin were always less than 1 and decreased from day 4 to day 14. The absorption of pesticide biomarkers in produce and excretion in urine would falsely indicate consumer pesticide exposure if used to reconstruct dose for risk characterization. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Zhang X.,University of California at Riverside | Acevedo S.,University of California at Riverside | Chao Y.,University of California at Riverside | Chen Z.,University of California at Riverside | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2011

Two herbicides, 2,4-D and triclopyr esters (application ratio 1.6:1 acid equivalents) were applied as a tank mix by a crew of 8 backpack sprayer applicators, a mixer/loader, and a field supervisor. The crew was employed in a conifer release program in northern California during the summer of 2002. Biomonitoring (urine, 24 h) utilized 2,4-D and triclopyr (a.e.) as rapidly excreted exposure biomarkers. The absorbed dosages of 2,4-D and triclopyr were calculated based upon cotton whole body suits and biomonitoring. Dosages based upon accumulation of the herbicides on body suits averaged 42.6 μg (a.e.) 2,4-D/kg-d and 8.0 μg (a.e.) triclopyr/kg-d. Six consecutive days of concurrent urine collections showed that backpack applicators excreted an average of 11.0 μg (a.e.) 2,4-D/kg-d and 18.9 μg (a.e.) triclopyr/kg-d. Estimates based upon curve fitting were 17.1 and 29.3 μg (a.e.)/kg-d, respectively. Results suggest that passive dosimetry for 2,4-D consistently overestimated the dosage measured using biomonitoring by a factor of 2-3 fold, while for triclopyr, passive dosimetry underestimated the absorbed dose based on biomonitoring by a factor of 2-4 fold. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Sankaran G.,University of California at Riverside | Lopez T.,University of California at Riverside | Ries S.,University of California at Riverside | Ross J.,Gem Quality Risk Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2015

Pesticide exposure during harvesting of crops occurs primarily to the workers hands. When harvesters wear latex rubber gloves for personal safety and hygiene harvesting reasons, gloves accumulate pesticide residues. Hence, characterization of the gloves properties may be useful for pesticide exposure assessments. Controlled field studies were conducted using latex rubber gloves to define the factors that influence the transfer of pesticides to the glove and that would affect their use as a residue monitoring device. A novel sampling device called the Brinkman Contact Transfer Unit (BCTU) was constructed to study the glove characteristics and residue transfer and accumulation under controlled conditions on turf. The effectiveness of latex rubber gloves as sampling dosimeters was evaluated by measuring the transferable pesticide residues as a function of time. The validation of latex rubber gloves as a residue sampling dosimeter was performed by comparing pesticide transfer and dissipation from the gloves, with the turf transferable residues sampled using the validated California (CA) Roller, a standard measure of residue transfer. The observed correlation (Pearsons correlation coefficient R2) between the two methods was.84 for malathion and.96 for fenpropathrin, indicating that the BCTU is a useful, reliable surrogate tool for studying available residue transfer to latex rubber gloves under experimental conditions. Perhaps more importantly, these data demonstrate that latex gloves worn by workers may be useful quantifiable matrices for measuring pesticide exposure. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Sankaran G.,University of California at Riverside | Chen L.,University of California at Riverside | Chen Z.,University of California at Riverside | Liu Y.,University of California at Riverside | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2015

Fruit harvesters primary pesticide exposure results from direct dermal and clothing contact with foliar residues. The transfer of pesticide residues from foliage to strawberry harvesters hands and their subsequent dissipation under normal occupational conditions in the field was examined. The effectiveness of latex gloves as sampling dosimeters was evaluated and compared with bare-handed harvester exposures. After application of malathion and fenpropathrin insecticides on strawberry fields, resulting harvester exposures using four independent methods were studied. Between d 4 (preharvest interval, PHI) and d 7 after pesticide application, (1) dislodgeable foliar residues, (2) pesticide residues accumulating on the gloves, and (3) end-of-shift harvester hand-wash residues decreased by 90, 75, and 85%, respectively. In contrast, the 7-d decline in excreted urine metabolites was only 43% for gloved harvesters and 29% for barehanded ones. In addition, gloved harvesters displayed 23% lower biomonitored exposures than barehanded ones, demonstrating that latex gloves are an effective protective barrier against surface residues. Since malathion and its metabolites are readily excreted, data indicated that there were likely other sources of excreted malathion breakdown products present on foliar surfaces after dissipation of malathion itself. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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