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Lauzacco, Italy

How communities respond to and recover from damaging hazard events could be contextualized in terms of their disaster resilience. Although numerous efforts have sought to explain the determinants of disaster resilience, the ability to measure the concept is increasingly being seen as a key step toward disaster risk reduction. The development of standards that are meaningful for measuring resilience remains a challenge, however. This is partially because there are few explicit sets of procedures within the literature that outline how to measure and compare communities in terms of their resilience. The primary purpose of this article is to advance the understanding of the multidimensional nature of disaster resilience and to provide an externally validated set of metrics for measuring resilience at subcounty levels of geography. A set of metrics covering social, economic, institutional, infrastructural, community-based, and environmental dimensions of resilience was identified, and the validity of the metrics is addressed via real-world application using Hurricane Katrina and the recovery of the Mississippi Gulf Coast in the United States as a case study. © 2015, © 2015 by Association of American Geographers.

Pagani M.,GEM Hazard Team | Garcia J.,GEM Hazard Team | Monelli D.,GEM Hazard Team | Weatherill G.,GEM Hazard Team | Smolka A.,GEM Foundation
Annals of Geophysics | Year: 2015

The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) initiative promotes open, transparent and collaborative science aimed at the assessment of earthquake risk and its reduction worldwide. During the first implementation phase (2009-2014) GEM sponsored five projects aimed at the creation of global datasets and guidelines toward the creation of open, transparent and, as far as possible, homogeneous hazard input models. These projects concentrated on the following global databases and models: an instrumental catalogue, a historical earthquake archive and catalogue, a geodetic strain rate model, a database of active faults, and set of ground motion prediction equations. This paper describes the main outcomes of these projects illustrating some initial applications as well as challenges in the creation of hazard models. © 2015 by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. All rights reserved.

Silva V.,GEM Foundation | Crowley H.,GEM Foundation | Pagani M.,GEM Foundation | Monelli D.,ETH Zurich | Pinho R.,GEM Foundation
Natural Hazards | Year: 2014

The Global Earthquake Model aims to combine the main features of state-of-the-art science, global collaboration and buy-in, transparency and openness in an initiative to calculate and communicate earthquake risk worldwide. One of the first steps towards this objective has been the open-source development and release of software for seismic hazard and risk assessment called the OpenQuake engine. This software comprises a set of calculators capable of computing human or economic losses for a collection of assets, caused by a given scenario event, or by considering the probability of all possible events that might happen within a region within a certain time span. This paper provides an insight into the current status of the development of this tool and presents a comprehensive description of each calculator, with example results. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Stillwell K.,GEM Foundation | Mayes R.L.,SGH | Von Berg E.,CA Capital
NCEE 2014 - 10th U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering: Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014

Measuring and improving the resiliency of our country's building stock is a national imperative. Current methods to define and evaluate resiliency are inconsistent, hard to apply, or lack standardization and verification. Furthermore, FEMA and NSF have consistently ranked rating system development as a top priority for broadening the impact of earthquake and disaster-resistant engineering. The US Resiliency Council® (USRC), a US-based nonprofit organization, was formed to meet these needs. Through its Certification of Resilient Engineering (CoRE®) Ratings, USRC will make resilient buildings both straightforward to achieve and highly sought-after. The USRC awards CoRE Ratings for owners, lenders, communities, and other stakeholders to evaluate and communicate building resilience objectively and consistently. CoRE Ratings cover earthquake and other natural perils, and are based on systems already in-place, such as those developed by the SEAONC Existing Buildings Committee and the Institute for Building and Home Safety. The USRC intends for CoRE Ratings to become the standard for quantifying the value of improved resilience, and a key metric for due diligence in real estate transactions. Ratings will benefit building owners, lenders, tenants and government jurisdictions by increasing the value of well-designed properties and providing a means to quantify risk. This paper presents not only the technical underpinnings of CoRE Ratings but also the process by which the USRC is making resilient buildings a reality.

Silva V.,University of Aveiro | Crowley H.,GEM Foundation | Varum H.,University of Aveiro | Pinho R.,GEM Foundation | Pinho R.,University of Pavia
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014

The assessment of the seismic risk at a national scale represents an important resource in order to introduce measures that may reduce potential losses due to future earthquakes. This evaluation results from the combination of three components: seismic hazard, structural vulnerability and exposure data. In this study, a review of existing studies focusing on each one of these areas is carried out, and used together with data from the 2011 Building Census in Portugal to compile the required input models for the evaluation of seismic hazard and risk. In order to better characterize the epistemic uncertainty in the calculations, several approaches are considered within a logic tree structure, such as the consideration of different seismic source zonations, the employment of vulnerability functions derived based on various damage criteria and the employment of distinct spatial resolutions in the exposure model. The aim of this paper is thus to provide an overview of the recent developments regarding the different aspects that influence the seismic hazard and risk in Portugal, as well as an up-to-date identification of the regions that are more vulnerable to earthquakes, together with the expected losses for a probability of exceedance of 10 % in 50 years. The results from the present study were obtained through the OpenQuake engine, the open-source software for seismic risk and hazard assessment developed within the global earthquake model (GEM) initiative. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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