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Castello A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Castello A.,CIBER ISCIII | Castello A.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Pollan M.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 25 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Although there are solid findings regarding the detrimental effect of alcohol consumption, the existing evidence on the effect of other dietary factors on breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and risk of BC in Spanish women, stratifying by menopausal status and tumour subtype, and to compare the results with those of Alternate Healthy Index (AHEI) and Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED). Methods: We recruited 1017 incident BC cases and 1017 matched healthy controls of similar age (±5 years) without a history of BC. The association between 'a priori' and 'a posteriori' developed dietary patterns and BC in general and according to menopausal status and intrinsic tumour subtypes (ER+/PR+ and HER2-; HER2+; and ER-/PR- and HER2-) was evaluated using logistic and multinomial regression models. Results: Adherence to the Western dietary pattern was related to higher risk of BC (OR for the top vs the bottom quartile 1.46 (95% CI 1.06-2.01)), especially in premenopausal women (OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.14-2.67). In contrast, the Mediterranean pattern was related to a lower risk (OR for the top quartile vs the bottom quartile 0.56 (95% CI 0.40-0.79)). Although the deleterious effect of the Western pattern was similarly observed in all tumour subtypes, the protective effect of our Mediterranean pattern was stronger for triple-negative tumours (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.15-0.66 and Pheterogeneity=0.04). No association was found between adherence to the Prudent pattern and BC risk. The associations between 'a priori' indices and BC risk were less marked (OR for the top vs the bottom quartile of AHEI=0.69; 95% CI 0.51-0.94 and aMED=0.74; 95% CI 0.46-1.18)). Conclusions: Our results confirm the harmful effect of a Western diet on BC risk, and add new evidence on the benefits of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, oily fish and vegetable oils for preventing all BC subtypes, and particularly triple-negative tumours. © 2014 Cancer Research UK.

PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Polytechnic University of Mozambique, Medical Oncology Unit, Hospital Clinico Universitario San Carlos and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: Gynecologic oncology | Year: 2017

To examine the influence of physical activity on breast cancer risk and evaluate whether adherence to international recommendations is associated with a decreased risk.This is a multicenter matched case-control study where 698 pairs completed a physical activity questionnaire. Recreational physical activity during the last year was quantified in metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-h/week) and categorized in activities of moderate (3.0-5.9 MET) and vigorous (>6 MET) intensity. The adherence to World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research recommendation was also assessed. The association with breast cancer risk, overall and by pathologic subtype, was evaluated using conditional and multinomial logistic regression models.Mean MET-h/week was 16.6 among cases and 20.4 among controls. Premenopausal breast cancer risk decreased by 5% (P=0.007) for every 6 MET-h/week increase in energy expenditure. By contrast, postmenopausal women needed to do more intense exercise to observe benefits. The protection was more pronounced for nulliparous women, as well as for hormone receptor positive and HER2+ tumors. Physically inactive women displayed a 71% increased risk when compared with those who met the international recommendation (P=0.001). Finally, women who were inactive during the previous year, regardless of the overall physical activity reported in previous periods, showed an increased risk when compared to always active women.Women who report adherence to international physical activity recommendations entail a significant decrease in risk for all pathologic breast cancer subtypes. This is of particular interest in Spain, where a significant increase in overweight and obesity in recent decades is observed.

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