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Lahore, Pakistan

Ghafoor A.,GCU | Mahmood A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology | Qureshi T.M.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

An experiment was conducted to determine the calcium status of male and female (lactating and non-lactating) grazing goats (Thalli breed) during summer and winter seasons at a private goat farm in Punjab, Pakistan. The samples of forage plants, soil, water, milk, blood, urine and fecal matter of animals were gathered fortnightly for two months of each season for the estimation of calcium. The highest amount of calcium in urine, blood plasma, milk and feces were 102±4.56, 135±4.98, 117±5.0 mg L-1 and 280± 4.56 mg kg-1, respectively. The maximum amounts of calcium 530±0.21 and 124±2.65 mg kg-1 was found in soil and forage samples while minimum amount 54±0.54 mg L-1 in canal water. It was concluded that the available concentrations of calcium to animals through forage plants were in-sufficient to meet the dietary requirements of animals. It is therefore, an emergent need of calcium supplementation either through soil or in the feed of animals that will ultimately improve the animal health by minimizing metabolic disorders. © 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan. Source

Lin X.,Capital Medical University | Farooqi A.A.,Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine | Qureshi M.Z.,GCU | Romero M.A.,Autonomous University of Guerrero | And 2 more authors.
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis | Year: 2016

It is becoming characteristically more understandable that within tumor cells, there lies a sub-population of tumor cells with “stem cell” like properties and remarkable ability of self-renewal. Many features of these self-renewing cells are comparable with normal stem cells and are termed as “cancer stem cells”. Accumulating experimentally verified data has started to scratch the surface of spatio-temporally dysregulated intracellular signaling cascades in the biology of prostate cancer stem cells. We partition this multicomponent review into how different signaling cascades operate in cancer stem cells and how bioactive ingredients isolated from natural sources may modulate signaling network. © 2016, L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland. Source

Khan M.A.,Hazara University | Qureshi M.Z.,GCU | Dawson L.,James Hutton Institute | Rehman M.,Hazara University | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Thermoactinomyces sacchari was isolated from hot water springs. Then by utilizing the solid state fermentation techniques, amylase was obtained, which was partially purified. The partially purified enzyme was then used to remove the starch size from cloth. Effective enzymatic desizing requires the strict control of pH, temperature, water hardness, electrolyte addition and choice of surfactant. It was observed that maximum removal 7. 5 g was achieved by soaking the cloth in 100 ml of 0. 1M HCl for 2 hours. A maximum of 98. 4desizing was obtained after 90 minutes at 55°C. A maximum desizing of 98. 9 was obtained after 60 minutes of incubation at 55°C. A maximum desizing of100% was obtained at pH 6. 0 at 55°C for 60 minutes. At lower and higher values desizing decreased. When cotton pieces were soaked for 60 minutes at pH 6. 0, maximum desizing (100%) was obtained at 60°C. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

News Article
Site: http://phys.org/biology-news/

Starting from the four innermost letters and working to the outermost ring, this table shows shows which three-letter base sequence or codon encodes which amino acid. In the journal Angewandte Chemie International Ed., researchers from the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI), a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and Yale University have discovered that microorganisms recognize more than one codon for the rare, genetically encoded amino acid selenocysteine. Credit: Wikimedia Commons A, C, G and T - stand in for the four chemical bases that store information in DNA. A sequence of these same four letters, repeating in a particular order, genetically defines an organism. Within the genome sequence are shorter, three-letter codons that represent one of the 20 regularly used amino acids, with three of the possible 64 three-letter codons reserved for stop signals. These amino acids are the building blocks of proteins that carry out a myriad of functions. For example, the amino acid alanine can be represented by the three-letter codon GCU and the amino acid cysteine by the three-letter codon UGU. In some organisms, the three-letter codon UGA, which normally signals the end of a protein-coding gene, is hijacked to code for a rare genetically encoded amino acid called selenocysteine. Published ahead online March 16, 2016 in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Ed., researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI), a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and Yale University have discovered that microorganisms recognize more than one codon for selenocysteine. The finding adds credence to recent studies indicating that an organism's genetic vocabulary is not as constrained as had been long held. The work is a follow-up to two 2014 publications; a Science paper by the JGI group finding that some organisms interpret the three "stop" codons which terminate translation to mean anything but. A synthetic biology experiment of the Yale group published in an Angewandte Chemie International Ed. paper revealed the astonishing fact that almost all codons in Escherichia coli could be replaced by selenocysteine. This posed the question whether the same phenomenon can also occur in nature. "Access to the tremendous resources at the JGI allowed us to quickly test challenging hypotheses generated from my research projects that have been supported over the long-term by DOE Basic Energy Sicences and the National Institutes of Health," said Dieter Soll, Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry Professor of Chemistry at Yale, the lead author of the paper. Thus a fruitful collaboration resulted; the combined team scanned trillions of base pairs of public microbial genomes and unassembled metagenome data in the National Center for Biotechnology Information and the DOE JGI's Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) data management system to find stop codon reassignments in bacteria and bacteriophages. Delving into genomic data from uncultured microbes afforded researchers the opportunity to learn more about how microbes behave in their natural environments, which in turn provides information on their management of the various biogeochemical cycles that help maintain the Earth. From approximately 6.4 trillion bases of metagenomic sequence and 25,000 microbial genomes, the team identified several species that recognize the stop codons UAG and UAA, in addition to 10 sense codons, as acceptable variants for the selenocysteine codon UGA. The findings, the team reported, "opens our minds to the possible existence of other coding schemes... Overall our approach provides new evidence of a limited but unequivocal plasticity of the genetic code whose secrets still lie hidden in the majority of unsequenced organisms." This finding also illustrates the context-dependency of the genetic code, that accurately "reading" the code (and interpreting DNA sequences) and ultimately "writing" DNA (synthesizing sequences to carry out defined functions in bioenergy or environmental sciences) will require study of the language of DNA past the introductory course level. Explore further: Simplifying genetic codes to look back in time More information: Takahito Mukai et al. Facile Recoding of Selenocysteine in Nature, Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2016). DOI: 10.1002/anie.201511657

Ghazala B.,GCU | Ejaz H.,GCU | Abdur R.,Rashid Latif Medical College
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences | Year: 2014

Aim: To analyse antioxidant potential of Sargassum sp and lyengaria sp by using ferrous ion chelating assay. Methods: Sargassum sp and Iyengaria sp were collected from southeast coast of Karachi. The powdered seaweed samples (500g of Sargassum sp and Iyengaria sp) were extracted with methanol in conical flasks at room temperature for three weeks. The samples were filtered using Whatman filter paper to obtain clarified filtrates. Ferrous ion-chelating assay was used for evaluation of antioxidant potential. Results: The methanolic extract of Sargassum sp showed higher potential as evidenced by Ferrous ion-chelating Assay. Conclusion: This is a preliminary study highlighting potential of Sargassum sp and future studies must converge on in-vitro analysis of these species for a better understanding of the biological mechanisms regulated by Sargassum sp to control cellular activities. Source

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