Group Leader, Dr Masafumi Inoue of Agency for Science Technology and Research's (A*STAR) Experimental Therapeutics Centre shows a sample to be tested with the Zika virus diagnostic test kit at their laboratory in Singapore, February 10, 2016. A*STAR and Singapore's Tan Tock Seng Hospital are collaborating to equip an existing diagnostic test kit with the capability to detect the Zika virus. If preliminary results are successful, the kits could be distributed to hospitals by the end of March in preparation for any outbreaks in Singapore. according to local media. REUTERS/Edgar Su More LONDON, (Reuters) - French scientists say they have proved a link between the Zika virus and a nerve syndrome called Guillain-Barre, suggesting countries hit by the Zika epidemic will see a rise in cases of the serious neurological condition. Guillain-Barre (GBS) is a rare syndrome in which the body's immune system attacks part of the nervous system. It usually occurs a few days after exposure to a virus, bacteria or parasite. In a retrospective study analyzing data from a Zika outbreak in French Polynesia during 2013 and 2014, researchers led by Arnaud Fontanet of France's Institut Pasteur calculated the estimated risk of developing Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) at 2.4 for every 10,000 people infected by Zika. "This work is significant because it allows for the confirmation of the role of Zika virus infection in the occurrences of the severe neurological complications that constitute Guillain-Barré Syndrome," said Fontanet, Pasteur's head of the emerging diseases epidemiology. "The regions which are affected by the Zika virus epidemic are likely to see a significant increase in the number of patients with serious neurological complications, and when possible, should increase the capacity of health-care facilities to receive patients needing intensive care." The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared an outbreak of the mosquito-borne Zika virus spreading from Brazil an international health emergency. This declaration was largely based on evidence linking Zika to a birth defect known as microcephaly, marked by a small head and underdeveloped brain, but the WHO is also concerned about rising reports of cases of GBS in countries hit by Zika. It is not yet clear whether the Zika virus actually causes microcephaly in babies, but experts say the evidence of a link is growing. Fontanet's team analyzed data from 42 patients who developed GBS at the time of the French Polynesian epidemic and found that every one had evidence of a previous infection with Zika. Tests also showed 93 percent of them had been infected with Zika recently - within three months prior to developing GBS. Jeremy Farrar, an infectious disease specialist and director of the Wellcome Trust global health charity, said the study, published in The Lancet medical journal, "provides the most compelling evidence to date of a causative link" between Zika and GBS. "The increase in reported cases of Guillain-Barré in Brazil and other South American countries seems to suggest that a similar situation may be occurring in the current outbreak, although the link here is yet to be proven definitively," he said in an emailed statement. According to WHO, even with the best healthcare services available, some 3 to 5 percent of GBS patients die from complications, including blood infection, lung clots, cardiac arrest and paralysis of the muscles that control breathing.
Journal of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014
Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a rare inflammatory, chronically progressive, unremitting disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system. Although the etiology of this condition is not known, high titers of IgM Ab to GM1 may serve as a biomarker for this disease. Clinical findings of motor weakness are associated with focal conduction blocks and with time, axonal destruction. Evidence supporting an immune etiology as well as the use of intravenous immunoglobulin to limit the disease progression is reviewed. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014. Source
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2014
Although many advances have occurred in anaesthesia within the last 50 years, the movement of surgical procedures from a hospital setting to an ambulatory environment has had a major impact on general health care. Several factors have driven this process, including advances in anaesthesia and technology, the desire by payers to reduce healthcare costs, the demonstration of patient safety and the positive experience of patients undergoing same-day surgery. The safety of ambulatory anaesthesia and surgery is well established. Greater emphasis is placed on minor side-effects, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Advances in technologies,which continue to move procedures out of the operating room and into imaging suites and the office, are driving the future of ambulatory anaesthesia and surgery. The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia's Clinical Outcomes Registry database was established to enhance the quality of ambulatory anaesthesia, develop benchmarks and establish best practice. The future and growth of ambulatory anaesthesia is secure with the ageing population and advances in technology. © SASA. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-NIGHT | Award Amount: 124.70K | Year: 2011
Light11 is conceived as an event driving a cultural change about researchers for the benefit of research-end users. Light11 will take place in Rome, the capital of the country, and in 4 additional locations in the South of Italy thus covering large part of the country. Light11 makes scientists from all over Italy converge to Rome, Benevento, Cosenza, Palermo and Bari. Light11 will last from 5.p.m. on 23 September to 1.a.m on 24 September. Light is celebrating its 4th year of life. As in previous editions, we dedicate the RN to a specific theme. This year Light11 is dedicated to: Real science and TV fictions in order to show that real scientists may be as interesting and attracting as those proposed by TV fictions and that science is continuously shaping our daily existence in order to improve the understanding of the world around us and to stimulate curiosity for further developments. We will use the protagonists of science-related TV shows as a springboard for dialogue with the public in order to improve the image of scientists In order to ignite peoples curiosity towards scientists work, Light11 will set-up a number of actions/events during the whole RN. The actions will be run in continuation in all the locations allowing visitors to freely pass from one area to the other without waiting for something to happen. The activities will be organised around 5 main areas: o Hands-on workshops with live demonstrations and hands-on experiments; o Big ideas from young minds area, where potential tomorrows scientists will present their special achievements; o Globe Science Theatre where groups of artists/sportsmen that have at least one member of the performing team actively engaged with scientific research will be on stage during the whole RN; o Outside activities on sports and music o European Corner with Marie Curie research and training networks teams witnessing and answering public demands;
News Article | February 2, 2016
Dallas County Health and Human Services announced today that a member of their community has contracted the Zika virus via a sexual encounter. This is the only the second-known case of Zika being sexually transmitted. The individual, who hasn't been identified, had sexual contact with someone who had recently returned from a visit to a country with known Zika activity. He or she represents the seventh person in Harris County, Texas to be diagnosed with the virus. According to the Texas Department of State Health Services, the other six had recently traveled to a country with Zika. The laboratory results were confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Zika is typically transmitted by mosquito bite, but the virus can be found in the semen and urine of infected patients, so it was suspected to be sexually-transmissible. In a 2008 case reported by the CDC, a man returned home to Colorado after visiting Senegal, where Zika was present. He and his wife both came down with symptoms, although only he had been exposed to bites from Zika-bearing mosquitoes. Both were tested and came out positive for the virus. The pathogen, which was discovered in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947, has recently exploded into international media due to a strongly-suspected link to microcephaly, a severe disability in infants, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), a rare condition that may cause paralysis. Pregnant women have been advised not to visit any region where Zika virus is known to be present, though these warnings imply a risk of mosquito bite, rather than sexual transmission. Pregnant women who are concerned about contracting Zika may use condoms to help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections from partners with Zika symptoms. Condoms remain the best protection against STIs, second only to abstinence. Yesterday, the WHO declared the Zika outbreak an international emergency, due mostly to its effect on pregnancies and link to GBS. Most people who contract Zika virus (and are not pregnant) will suffer no complications and show no symptoms. One in five infected people experience flu-like symptoms.