Uttarakhand, India
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Garg B.,Banasthali University | Jaiswal J.P.,GBPUAT | Misra S.,Banasthali University | Tripathi B.N.,Banasthali University | Prasad M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2012

To explore the adaptability of bread wheat to dehydration stress, we screened 28 cultivars collected from different agroclimatic zones, on the basis of malonaldehyde content as biochemical marker in roots of wheat seedlings during germination and classified them as highly tolerant, tolerant, sensitive and highly sensitive. From this primary screening, ten cultivars that showed differential responses to dehydration stress were selected to understand the biochemical and physiological basis of stress tolerance mechanisms. The highly tolerant cultivars showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation, less membrane damage, increased levels of antioxidants, enzymes like catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, and maintained higher relative water content in comparison to sensitive cultivars, indicating better protection mechanism operating in tolerant cultivars. Correspondingly, highly tolerant cultivars exhibited more accumulation of proline and less H 2O 2 content across different time points of polyethylene glycol treatments in comparison to sensitive ones. The above biochemical and physiological parameters were further validated through northern analysis of catalase (CAT1) gene, that showed differential expression patterns in tolerant and sensitive cultivars largely in confirmation with the biochemical and physiological analyses. Our study positively correlates the differences in the redox status and antioxidant defense system between tolerant and sensitive cultivars for the establishment of wheat seedlings in typical dehydration conditions. © 2012 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.

PubMed | University of Alberta, Gujarat University, University of Lethbridge, Forest Research Institute and GBPUAT
Type: | Journal: Critical reviews in biotechnology | Year: 2016

Proteases are ubiquitous enzymes that occur in various biological systems ranging from microorganisms to higher organisms. Microbial proteases are largely utilized in various established industrial processes. Despite their numerous industrial applications, they are not efficient in hydrolysis of recalcitrant, protein-rich keratinous wastes which result in environmental pollution and health hazards. This paved the way for the search of keratinolytic microorganisms having the ability to hydrolyze hard to degrade keratinous wastes. This new class of proteases is known as keratinases. Due to their specificity, keratinases have an advantage over normal proteases and have replaced them in many industrial applications, such as nematicidal agents, nitrogenous fertilizer production from keratinous waste, animal feed and biofuel production. Keratinases have also replaced the normal proteases in the leather industry and detergent additive application due to their better performance. They have also been proved efficient in prion protein degradation. Above all, one of the major hurdles of enzyme industrial applications (cost effective production) can be achieved by using keratinous waste biomass, such as chicken feathers and hairs as fermentation substrate. Use of these low cost waste materials serves dual purposes: to reduce the fermentation cost for enzyme production as well as reducing the environmental waste load. The advent of keratinases has given new direction for waste management with industrial applications giving rise to green technology for sustainable development.

Chakraborty S.K.,Bundelkhand University | Chakraborty S.K.,Anand Agricultural University | Singh D.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumbhar B.K.,G.B.P.U.A.T. | Chakraborty S.,Rvs Agricultural University
Food and Bioproducts Processing | Year: 2011

Designed experiments were conducted to prepare extrudates from different millet-legume blend ratios (BR) of varying moisture content (MC); the extruder was operated at varying die head temperature (DHT), barrel temperature (BT), and screw speed (SS). Second order polynomial models were developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to understand the effect of the variables on density, sectional expansion index (SEI), water absorption index (WAI) and crispness of extrudates. The MC had predominant effect upon SEI, WAI and crispness, while density was most susceptible to the variations in SS. All the models were found to be statistically valid. Optimum processing condition generated from the models was: MC, 23.2%w.b.; BR, 19.9%legume; DHT, 187 °C; BT, 121.1 °C and SS, 123 rpm. The predicted responses in terms of density, SEI, WAI and crispness were 0.52 kg/m3, 5.1, 9.4 and 45, respectively. The predicted values registered non-significant (p < 0.01) difference from experimental values. © 2010 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

The steady incompressible mixed convection boundary layer flow with variable fluid properties and mass transfer inside a cone due to a point sink at the vertex of the cone have been investigated. The fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity have been assumed to be temperature dependent. The governing fluid flow equations with boundary conditions have been transformed into set of coupled ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformations and solved Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The effects of Schmidt number, variable thermal conductivity parameter, mixed convection parameter, buoyancy parameter and chemical reaction parameter on velocity distribution, temperature distribution, concentration distribution, heat transfer rate and coefficient of skin-friction have been investigated. It is observed that concentration decreases with increasing Schmidt number and temperature increases with increasing values of thermal conductivity parameter. Also with increasing values of mixed convection parameter, velocity, temperature and concentration decreases. The present study is relevant in conical nozzle and diffuser flow problems exist in petroleum and chemical industries.

Patel S.K.,Anand Agricultural University | Varshney B.P.,GBPUAT
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2014

Recognition of effective factors and using suitable mechanism of crop harvesting can reduce seed losses to an acceptable amount. To investigate wheat crop losses due to seed moisture content and the speed of combine harvester at seed harvest time, research was carried out in G.B.P.U.A. & T., Pantnagar in 2003. This study included three seed moisture contents (10%, 15% and 20%) and three combine working speeds (1, 2 and 2.5 km/h) based on split plot by using a randomized block design with three replications. Finally combine working speed of 1.5 km/h and 9.16% crop moisture content was suitable for harvesting wheat crop. Stepwise regression technique was used to develop combine losses, seed breakage, performance and threshing efficiency models from field data. The r2 value for seed breakage, performance efficiency and threshing efficiency were 0.888, 0.676 and 0.803, respectively.

Singh N.J.,Central Agricultural University | Pandey R.K.,GBPUAT
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2011

Drying kinetic of sweet potato was investigated considering different drying conditions. The drying experiments were performed at five levels of drying air temperature between 50-90°C, together with five levels of air flow velocities of 1.5-5.5 m/s, and also three levels of thickness of 0.5-1.2 cm. A predictive model using artificial neural network was proposed in order to obtain on-line predictions of moisture kinetics during drying of sweet potato. A three-layer network with tangent sigmoid transfer function in hidden layer and linear transfer functions in the output was used. A feed-forward network with two hidden neurons was used. The best fitting with the training data set was obtained with eight neurons in the first hidden layer and four neurons in the second hidden layer, which made possible to predict moisture kinetics (moisture content, drying rate and moisture ratio) with accuracy, at least as good as experimental error, over the whole experimental range. On validation data set, simulation and experimental kinetics test were in good agreement. Comparing the R 2 (coefficient of determination), MRE and STD R using the developed ANN model it was concluded that the neural network could be used for on-line state estimation of drying characteristics and control of drying processes.

Gupta S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bajwa P.,GBPUAT | Deb R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chellappa M.M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dey S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2014

Chicken raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, regular vaccination of the flock is an absolute requirement to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. To combat infectious diseases, vaccines require inclusion of effective adjuvants that promote enhanced protection and do not cause any undesired adverse reaction when administered to birds along with the vaccine. With this perspective in mind, there is an increased need for effective better vaccine adjuvants. Efforts are being made to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of suitable adjuvants, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants. TLRs are among the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved pathogen molecules. A number of studies have documented the effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant as well as its ability to promote cytokine production by a range of innate immune cells. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of flagellin action, its role in inducing cytokine response in chicken cells, and the potential use of flagellin as well as its combination with other TLR ligands as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Pandey N.,G.B.P.U.A.T | Singh B.K.,G.B.P.U.A.T | Bist A.S.,Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology
2nd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, SPIN 2015 | Year: 2015

In many pattern recognition applications, limiting the number of features is a very important requirement due to high dimensional cost as well as the risk of 'overfitting' imposed by the high-dimensional feature vectors. Feature subset selection addresses the dimensionality reduction problem by determining a subset of available features which is most essential for classification. A novel feature learning for image classification is proposed here using wrapper approach in Genetic Algorithm. The proposed method applies GA for feature subset selection and neural network for classification. The method operates by trying to choose the subset of features which lead to the largest margin of class separation between two classes. Experiments are conducted on four benchmark datasets of iris, seed, glass and wine and then used on one domain dataset of rice. Comparison of the proposed approach is made with other approaches like Multi-SVM and GA-LDA to demonstrate its effectiveness and efficiency. Analysis of the experimental results shows that the proposed method outperforms the other two approaches in classification accuracy. © 2015 IEEE.

Rana B.,GBPUAT | Awasthi P.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Kumbhar B.K.,GBPUAT
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

s NaCl treatment was optimized for maximum reduction of cyanide content in raw bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) shoot using response surface methodology with 4 independent variables like concentration of NaCl, thickness of bamboo shoot, amount of NaCl solution and duration of treatment at 3 levels of each variable. Box-Behnken design was used to select the levels of variables in experimental runs. Cyanide content ranged between 12.8 and 29.6 mg/kg in bamboo shoot after NaCl treatment. The effect of concentration of NaCl was higher in reducing the cyanide content followed by thickness of bamboo shoot and treatment time in decreasing order. Amount of NaCl solution did not affect the reduction of cyanide content significantly. Optimum condition was 2.4% NaCl concentration, 1.25 cm thickness of bamboo shoot, 216 ml of NaCl solution and 23 min treatment. Corresponding cyanide content was 11.2 mg/kg. Experimental verification at optimum condition gave average cyanide content of 11.3 mg/kg on fresh weight basis, which was in good agreement with predicted and was well below permissible limit (500 mg/kg). The reduction of cyanide content was of 98.3% at optimum level. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Ramola S.,GBPUAT | Mishra T.,GBPUAT | Rana G.,GBPUAT | Srivastava R.K.,GBPUAT
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

Conversion of broad-spectrum organic waste into carbonaceous biochar has gained enormous interest in past few years. The present study aims to characterize feedstock (FS), i.e. bagasse (Bg), bamboo (Bm) and biochar (BC), i.e. baggase biochar (BBg), bamboo biochar (BBm) and tyre biochar (Ty). Significant changes in elemental composition, atomic ratio, proximate analyses, mineral content and heavy metal content were observed which was well supported by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Impregnation with ferric hydroxide was done, and resultant modified biochars (MBC), i.e. iron-impregnated baggase biochar (FeBBg), iron-impregnated bamboo biochar (FeBBm) and iron-impregnated tyre biochar (FeTy), along feedstock and biochar were used for PO4 3−, Pb, Hg and Cu adsorption. In general, BBg, FeBBg, BBm, FeBBm, Ty and FeTy were found to adsorb PO4 3−, Pb, Hg and Cu better than Bg and Bm, except in few cases. Results from adsorption experiments were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of isotherms and pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models of kinetics. Result of batch study adsorption revealed that maximum adsorption of PO4 3−, Pb, Hg and Cu was done by FeBBg (adsorption mechanism explained by Freundlich model), FeTy (Temkin model), Ty (Langmuir model) and BBm (Langmuir model) respectively. According to R2 values, pseudo-first-order reaction was well suited to PO4 3−, Pb, Hg and Cu adsorption. The optimum pH for maximum adsorption was observed to be 7.4 for PO4 3−, 5 for Cu and 6 for Pb and Hg respectively © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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