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Uttarakhand, India

Garg B.,Banasthali University | Jaiswal J.P.,GBPUAT | Misra S.,Banasthali University | Tripathi B.N.,Banasthali University | Prasad M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research NIPGR
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2012

To explore the adaptability of bread wheat to dehydration stress, we screened 28 cultivars collected from different agroclimatic zones, on the basis of malonaldehyde content as biochemical marker in roots of wheat seedlings during germination and classified them as highly tolerant, tolerant, sensitive and highly sensitive. From this primary screening, ten cultivars that showed differential responses to dehydration stress were selected to understand the biochemical and physiological basis of stress tolerance mechanisms. The highly tolerant cultivars showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation, less membrane damage, increased levels of antioxidants, enzymes like catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, and maintained higher relative water content in comparison to sensitive cultivars, indicating better protection mechanism operating in tolerant cultivars. Correspondingly, highly tolerant cultivars exhibited more accumulation of proline and less H 2O 2 content across different time points of polyethylene glycol treatments in comparison to sensitive ones. The above biochemical and physiological parameters were further validated through northern analysis of catalase (CAT1) gene, that showed differential expression patterns in tolerant and sensitive cultivars largely in confirmation with the biochemical and physiological analyses. Our study positively correlates the differences in the redox status and antioxidant defense system between tolerant and sensitive cultivars for the establishment of wheat seedlings in typical dehydration conditions. © 2012 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.

Chakraborty S.K.,Bundelkhand University | Singh D.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumbhar B.K.,GBPUAT
Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research | Year: 2014

Colour acts as one of the triggers for acceptance of snack foods. Digital imaging in conjunction with Adobe Photoshop can help identification of variations in the colour of extruded products. Response surface methodology-based central composite rotatable designed experiments were conducted to understand the colour components and overall acceptability (OAA) of extruded snacks made from millet–legume blends, 12–28% legume, at different moisture content (MC) of 12–24% wet basis (w.b.), extruded at varying die head temperatures (DHT) from 160–200 °C, barrel temperatures from 100–140 °C and screw speeds of 100–140 rpm. A simple digital camera was used for capturing the images of the extrudates. An L*a*b* colour model (where L* is the black/ white element, a* is green/red and b* is blue/yellow) was used for colour characterization and OAA was determined by a hedonic scale. It was inferred from the analysis of the resulting statistically valid second order models for the responses that all the colour components were significantly affected by the amount of legume in the extruder feed and by the DHT. It was also observed that DHT, synergistically with other processing parameters, had a significant effect on all the responses. The OAA was highest for the extrudates with higher L* values. Optimum processing conditions were derived while the responses adhered to constraints. The responses of the extrudates prepared under optimum conditions exhibited no significant variation from model predicted values. © 2014, Teagasc. All rights reserved.

Gupta S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bajwa P.,GBPUAT | Deb R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chellappa M.M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Dey S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2014

Chicken raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, regular vaccination of the flock is an absolute requirement to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. To combat infectious diseases, vaccines require inclusion of effective adjuvants that promote enhanced protection and do not cause any undesired adverse reaction when administered to birds along with the vaccine. With this perspective in mind, there is an increased need for effective better vaccine adjuvants. Efforts are being made to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of suitable adjuvants, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants. TLRs are among the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved pathogen molecules. A number of studies have documented the effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant as well as its ability to promote cytokine production by a range of innate immune cells. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of flagellin action, its role in inducing cytokine response in chicken cells, and the potential use of flagellin as well as its combination with other TLR ligands as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Patel S.K.,Anand Agricultural University | Varshney B.P.,GBPUAT
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2014

Recognition of effective factors and using suitable mechanism of crop harvesting can reduce seed losses to an acceptable amount. To investigate wheat crop losses due to seed moisture content and the speed of combine harvester at seed harvest time, research was carried out in G.B.P.U.A. & T., Pantnagar in 2003. This study included three seed moisture contents (10%, 15% and 20%) and three combine working speeds (1, 2 and 2.5 km/h) based on split plot by using a randomized block design with three replications. Finally combine working speed of 1.5 km/h and 9.16% crop moisture content was suitable for harvesting wheat crop. Stepwise regression technique was used to develop combine losses, seed breakage, performance and threshing efficiency models from field data. The r2 value for seed breakage, performance efficiency and threshing efficiency were 0.888, 0.676 and 0.803, respectively.

Chakraborty S.K.,Bundelkhand University | Chakraborty S.K.,Anand Agricultural University | Singh D.S.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumbhar B.K.,GBPUAT | Chakraborty S.,Rvs Agricultural University
Food and Bioproducts Processing | Year: 2011

Designed experiments were conducted to prepare extrudates from different millet-legume blend ratios (BR) of varying moisture content (MC); the extruder was operated at varying die head temperature (DHT), barrel temperature (BT), and screw speed (SS). Second order polynomial models were developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to understand the effect of the variables on density, sectional expansion index (SEI), water absorption index (WAI) and crispness of extrudates. The MC had predominant effect upon SEI, WAI and crispness, while density was most susceptible to the variations in SS. All the models were found to be statistically valid. Optimum processing condition generated from the models was: MC, 23.2%w.b.; BR, 19.9%legume; DHT, 187 °C; BT, 121.1 °C and SS, 123 rpm. The predicted responses in terms of density, SEI, WAI and crispness were 0.52 kg/m3, 5.1, 9.4 and 45, respectively. The predicted values registered non-significant (p < 0.01) difference from experimental values. © 2010 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

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