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Pant S.,Baba Ghulam Shah Badhshah University | Samant S.S.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development
Tropical Ecology | Year: 2012

The Khokhan Wildlife Sanctuary (KhWLS) located in the Kullu district of northwestern Himalaya and covering an area of 14 km 2 has not been explored for documenting the structure and composition of vegetation. In this study we examine the site/habitat characteristics, assess the diversity of tree species, delineate forest tree communities, assess the regeneration pattern of tree species, and suggest conservation measures. Sixty-five sites were sampled between 1640 - 2400 m asl and for each site, habitat characteristics, altitude and dominant species were noted. Seventeen forest tree communities were recorded. Cedrus deodara community was the most widely distributed followed by Quercus leucotrichophora, Abies pindrow and Quercus semecarpifolia communities. Cedrus deodara community had maximum density of trees (1468 Ind ha -1), seedlings (1290 Ind ha -1) and saplings (1172 Ind ha -1), while Picea smithiana community recorded the maximum total basal area (186.2 m 2 ha -1). Of the 17 forest tree communities identified, eight showed maximum regeneration of the dominant species, six showed maximum regeneration of the co-dominant species indicating the possibility of at least partial replacement of the dominant species by the co-dominant species in the future; and three communities showed poor or no regeneration of the dominant species indicating a total replacement of the dominants in the coming years. Long term monitoring of these tree communities for their conservation management is suggested. © International Society for Tropical Ecology.

Paul S.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development | Shakya K.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013

Effect of As(III), Cr(VI) and NaCl on plant growth, antioxidant enzymes, SOD, TBRAS, protein, cDNA amplification of key genes of artemisinin pathway and artemisinin biosynthesis have been investigated to explore the actual changes in total herb and artemisinin yield in a crop cycle of Artemisia annua. Enhanced TBARS and SOD activity (4Umg-1), decreased catalase activity and total cholorophyll content were observed under metal(loid) and NaCl stress. Accumulation of As (III; μgmg-1 DW) was higher in roots (10.75±0.00) than shoot (0.43±0.00) at 10μgml-1. While Cr(VI; μgml-1 DW) accumulated more in shoots (37±9.6, 41.1±7.2 and 52.71±19.6). cDNA template of these treated plants along with control were amplified with HMGR, ADS and CYP71AV1 genes (artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes); showed very low expression with Cr(VI) while As(III) (5 and 7.5μgml-1) showed higher expression than control. The results obtained from this study suggest that A. annua can grow well with favoring artemisinin biosynthesis with treatment of As(III) 5, 7.5μgml-1 and NaCl, while 10μgml-1 As(III) and all doses of Cr(VI) affect artemisinin synthesis. Finally some evidence also suggests that As(III), Cr(VI) and NaCl induces stress affects on total herb yield of plant. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Rana M.S.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development | Samant S.S.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2011

Lilium polyphyllum D. Don ex Royle, a Critically Endangered medicinal plant of the Himalayan Region is exploited for its roots to meet the demand of pharmaceutical industries. Over exploitation from the natural habitats has caused population depletion to a great extent. Therefore, population status of Lilium polyphyllum, effect of soil factors and associated species, and methods to improve seed germination were investigated. Species were sampled in habitats, seeds were collected and subjected to various treatments viz., soaking, chilling, plant growth regulators (indol acetic acid, indol butyric acid and gibbrelic acid) and chemical compounds (potassium nitrate and sodium hypochlorite). Lilium polyphyllum was recorded in only two habitats between 2338 and 2574m with density range of 1-6.7 plants m-2. Density had significant correlations with soil moisture content (r=0.463, P<0.05) and nitrogen (r=-0.96, P<0.01). In control conditions seed germination (35%) and Mean Germination Time (91 days) was poor. All the treatments applied to the seeds improved germination and MGT significantly (P<0.01) over control. Sodium hypochlorite (5min) improved the germination percentage to 92% and indol acetic acid (100μM) reduced mean germination time to 20 days. Species had high sensitivity to soil factors (i.e., nitrogen and moisture), non-native species and habitat destruction in natural habitats. Therefore, regular monitoring of its habitats, mass multiplication using germination protocol and transplantation are suggested to conserve the species. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

Saha D.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development | Sundriyal R.C.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2012

Community dependence on forest resources for diverse needs has high implications for long term management of forests. Sustainable extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is considered best feasible strategy for forest conservation in biodiversity rich areas. This paper examines the heterogeneity of NTFPs use by tribal communities in northeast India, a global hot spot by examining diversity of NTFPs at-large, its consumption pattern, and contribution to rural income and forest revenue. A total of 343 NTFPs recorded used for diverse purposes by tribal communities. When species choice grouped as per use category, utilization for medicinal (163 species), edible fruits (75 species) and vegetables (65 species) purposes was reasonably high. Community dependence on forest resources was 100% for firewood and house construction material. 76 plant species were sold in three major local markets while an additional 22 species traded at commercial scale mainly outside the state. NTFPs contributed 19-32% of total household income for different tribal communities, which was significant. Illicium griffithii, Rubia cordifolia, Oroxylum indicum, Swertia chirayita, Litsea sebifera, Taxus wallichiana, Valeriana jatamansii, Thalictrum foliolosum, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Everniastrum cirrhatum, Cordyceps sinensis, Aconitum fletcherianum, Nardostachys jatamansi, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Gymnadenia orchidis, Calamus, Quercus and Pinus roxbughii were important commercial species. NTFPs also generated substantial revenue to the State government, though it is falling year after year, which is alarming. To meet community livelihoods, income and forest revenue from NTFPs, it desires a thorough management plan and policy guidelines for these resources from all line departments. The knowledge on diversity, its consumption pattern, and contribution to rural income and forest revenue may enable planners to accurately plan sustainable management of NTFP resources and community development in near future. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Phondani P.C.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2011

The present study deals with 40 medicinal plant species used to cure a variety of ailments through traditional health care system by the local healers (Vaidyas). These plants were checked and verified from the available literature which revealed that the uses of these plants were newly recorded. Depth studies of 40 new recorded medicinal plants were documented with their different parts being used in herbal medicines. It was also found that one species or some times more species were used for curing one or many diseases together. The nature and type of symptoms of diseases reported of human beings were found varying across the region. All these different kinds of diseases were grouped in to three categories i.e. serious, moderate and common based on the risk factor and seriousness of disease in consultation with doctors practicing different streams of treatment i.e. Vaidyas, Ayurvedic and Allopathic. About more than 40% of local inhabitants were consulted, so as to reveals their perceptions on ranking of 10 common ailments prioritized by the local people based on their preference for opting herbal system of treatments. The traditional herbal system of medicine is one of the most important prevailing systems in the area where modern health care centre are rare or in very poor conditions.

Tarafdar S.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

Water scarcity is becoming a major problem in High Mountain Basins of Indian Himalaya. Access to fresh water becomes a core concern for every dweller in the summer season all across the Indian Himalayan Region. This paper presents an assessment of two low yielding perennial springs in one of the urban center located in the very steep mountain slopes of Lesser Himalaya. Spring hydrographs were analyzed to investigate the variability and availability of spring flow in three seasons. Dynamic spring flow volume in storage and time at which the flow may cease were also assessed, as they play a crucial role for planning short-term measures. The linear model using the exponential decay equation is found to be sufficiently accurate to model the recession characteristics of spring outflow from the hardrock aquifers for winter season, as the main contribution comes from baseflow with delayed interflow, which is slow diffuse flow in nature. The present study examines the findings from 1 year of spring outflow and rainfall when deficient monsoonal rainfall (moderate drought) is recorded in major parts of the country. The data can play a significant role in estimating dependable minimum water availability from the spring outflow and planning for appropriate capacity of low to medium storage structure for conserving the excess water which goes unutilized even during the high scarcity period. The analysis of duration curve suggests, more focus should be given for conserving the surplus water available during the monsoon through appropriate storage structures, which can be used during the leanest month. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Pradhan B.K.,GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development | Badola H.K.,GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2012

Swertia chirayita, a critically endangered medicinal herb, is being over-harvested in the wild. Understanding seed germination is a pre-requisite to ensure species conservation. The germination of seeds collected from six microhabitats was studied at 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C, both under a 14/10 h light/dark photoperiod and in continuous darkness. Two-way ANOVA indicated that microhabitat and temperature significantly affect seed germination, germination rate, germination recovery (GR), and GR rate. Overall, the seeds collected from under canopy showed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher germination than those from open habitats, at 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C (14/10 h light/dark photoperiod). Germination was negligible in continuous darkness but after transfer to a 14/10 h light/dark photoperiod, the seeds from under canopy significantly recovered at 20°C and at 25°C (p < 0.05), and showed the highest germination percentage compared to seeds collected from tree base, stump base, shrubberies, and grassy slope. Similarly, at 30°C, seeds from under canopy recorded the highest GR percentage. In general, seed germination, mean germination rate, seed GR, and GR rate were significantly greater (p < 0.05) at 25°C. Among the microhabitats tested, variation in GR rate was significant (p < 0.05). Seeds were confirmed to be positively photoblastic. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Rawat S.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development | Bhatt I.D.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development | Rawal R.S.,Gb Pant Institute Of Himalayan Environment And Development
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2011

Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Hedychium spicatum were analyzed for 16 different natural populations located in Uttarakhand (west Himalaya) for promotion as health or medicinal food. Total phenolic compounds varied among populations from 4.70. mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) to 2.84. mg GAE/g dry weight. Three in vitro antioxidant assays, i.e. azinobisethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging (ABTS) assay, diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, showed significant (p<0.05) differences across populations. ABTS assay showed highest values of antioxidant potential ranging from 2.581. mM ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE) per 100. g to 1.91. mM AAE per 100. g dry weight, followed by FRAP assay (1.921-0.6635. mM AAE per 100. g). Lowest values were observed for DPPH assay, which varied from 0.549 to 1.059. mM AAE per 100. g dry weight. All assays (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) showed significant (p<0.05) correlation with total phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds showed a significant relationship (p<0.05) to altitude. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Rana Man S.,GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development | Samant S.S.,GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2011

In the moutaineous regions human populations are dependent on plants for their sustenance particularly for medicine. In India, more than 95% of the total medicinal plants used in preparing medicines by various industries are harvested from wild. There is a great need to recognise the potential of bioresources at their fullest. Therefore, the present study focused to assess the medicinal plants diversity in Manali wildlife sanctuary of North western Himalaya, identify species preference, native, endemic and threatened medicinal plants and suggests conservation measures. A total of 270 medicinal plants belonging to 84 families and 197 genera were recorded. Maximum medicinal plants were reported in the altitudinal zone, 2000-2800 m and decreased with increasing altitude. Out of the total, 162 medicinal plants were native and 98 were endemic to the Himalayan region. Maximum species were used for stomach problems, followed by skin, eyes, blood and liver problems. Thirty seven species were identified as threatened. Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Aconitum heterophyllum, Arnebia benthamii, Lilium polyphyllum, Swertia chirayita, Podophyllum hexandrum, Jurinella macrocephala, Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana, etc. were highly preferred species and continuous extraction from the wild for trade has increased pressure which may cause extinction of these species in near future. Identification of active ingredients and mass multiplication of the potential species have been suggested in view of economic importance. Regular monitoring of populations and habitats of threatened medicinal plants, restricted harvesting and habitat protection are suggested.

Rinu K.,GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development | Pandey A.,GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development
Mycoscience | Year: 2010

Ten species of Aspergillus isolated from soil samples collected from different locations in the Indian Himalayan region have been studied for their growth requirements and tricalcium phosphate solubilization at different temperatures. The Aspergillus species could grow at low temperature and tolerated a wide range of pH. Phosphate solubilization by various Aspergillus species ranged between 374 μg/ml (A. candidus) to 1394 μg/ml (A. niger) at 28°C, 33 μg/ml (A. fumigatus) to 2354 μg/ml (A. niger) at 21°C, 93 μg/ml (A. fumigatus) to 1452 μg/ml (A. niger) at 14°C, and 21 μg/ml (A. wentii) to 83 μg/ml (A. niger) at 9°C. At 21 and 28°C, phosphate solubilization showed a decrease within 4 weeks of incubation, whereas at 9°C and 14°C, it continued further up to 6 weeks of incubation. In general, phosphate solubilization by different Aspergillus species was recorded at a maximum of 28°C or 21°C; biomass production was favored at 21°C or 14°C. Conversely, A. nidulans and A. sydowii exhibited maximum phosphate solubilization at 14°C and produced maximum biomass at 21°C. Data suggest that suboptimal conditions (higher or lower temperature) for fungal growth and biomass production were optimal for the production of metabolites involved in phosphate solubilization. Significant negative correlations were obtained between pH and phosphate solubilization for eight species at 28°C, for seven at 21°C, and for nine at 14°C. Extracellular phosphatase activity was exhibited only in case of A. niger, whreas intracellular phosphatase activity was detected in all species, the maximum being in A. niger. Statistically significant positive or negative correlations were obtained between phosphate solubilization and other parameters in most cases at different temperatures. © 2010 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer. © The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer 2010.

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