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Villani E.,University of Milan | Mantelli F.,IRCCS GB Bietti Eye Foundation | Nucci P.,University of Milan
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent studies on in-vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings in ocular allergy and dry eye disease (DED), highlighting the role of IVCM in the advancement of knowledge of these diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: IVCM provided new data on ocular surface changes in both ocular allergy and DED. Corneal and conjunctival epithelial and inflammatory cells, corneal nerves, and Meibomian glands showed peculiar patterns of abnormalities, not easily discernable with current clinical exams in these two diseases and their subtypes. At present, small sample size of researches, and poor standardization and evidence of image analysis and interpretation are the most challenging issues. SUMMARY: Ocular allergy and DED are common and increasing healthcare problems, and need better understanding of pathogenesis and natural history, more reliable endpoints, and more tailored diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. IVCM allows quick, noninvasive, steady-state respectful examination of the ocular surface at cellular level to be performed and has potential to be used in the future as a biomarker and to contribute to optimize the tailored management of these diseases. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Morganti P.,University of Naples Federico II | Palombo P.,Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery | Palombo M.,Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery | Fabrizi G.,University of Parma | And 2 more authors.
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background: The reduction of mortality worldwide has led older individuals to seek intervention modalities to improve their appearance and reverse signs of aging. Objective: We formulated a medical device as innovative block-polymer nanoparticles based on phosphatidylcholine, hyaluronan, and chitin nanofibrils entrapping amino acids, vitamins, and melatonin. Methods: Viability and collagen synthesis were controlled on fibroblasts ex vivo culture while adenosine triphosphate production was evaluated on keratinocytes culture. Subjective and objective evaluations were performed in vivo on selected volunteer patients. Results: In accordance with our previous studies, both the in vitro and in vivo obtained results demonstrate the efficacy of the injected block-polymer nanoparticles in reducing skin wrinkling and ameliorating the signs of aging. © 2012 Morganti et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Sacchetti M.,Cornea and Ocular Surface Disease Unit | Lambiase A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Moretti C.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Mantelli F.,IRCCS GB Bietti Eye Foundation | Bonini S.,Biomedical University of Rome
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2015

Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P<0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P=0.007 and P=0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P=0.01 and P=0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P=0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. © 2015 Marta Sacchetti et al.

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