Open Joint Stock Company Gazprom is the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and one of the world's largest companies. Its name is a contraction of the Russian words Gazovaya Promyshlennost . Its headquarters are in Moscow. Gazprom was created in 1989 when the Soviet Ministry of Gas Industry converted to a corporation, retaining all its assets. The company was later partly privatised, although the Russian government currently holds a majority stake. In 2011, the company produced about 513.2 billion cubic metres of natural gas, amounting to more than 17% of worldwide gas production. In addition, Gazprom produced about 32.3 million tons of crude oil and nearly 12.1 million tons of gas condensate. Gazprom's activities accounted for 8% of Russia's gross domestic product in 2011.Gazprom's major production fields are located around the Gulf of Ob in Western Siberia, and the Yamal Peninsula is expected to become the company's main gas producing region in the future. Gazprom possesses the largest gas transport system in the world, with approximately 158,200 kilometres of gas trunk lines. Major new pipeline projects include Nord Stream and South Stream. The company has a number of subsidiaries in various industrial sectors, including finance, media and aviation, as well as majority stakes in various companies. Wikipedia.
News Article | May 24, 2017
Millions of euros from Russia to Britain, via Cyprus The activities of Russian oligarch Alexander Shchukin have thrown Cyprus into the whirlpool of international media. According to media reports, the Russian Authorities have asked, through Interpol, for details of Shchukin’s bank accounts and offshore companies, through which some €500 million appear to have been transferred from Russia to Britain. The international media have implicated the Russian tycoon, who is currently under house arrest, in cases of conflict of interests in relation to the ownership of coal mines in southwestern Siberia, extortion and illicit acquisitions of assets. Specifically, a recent report by Russian site www.versia.ru, which was based on an older report by British newspaper The Guardian, refers to Shchukin’s activities and to the suspicious routes of millions of euros from Russia to Britain, through companies with headquarters in Cyprus. It further notes that Shchukin would use illicit and unfair practices to blackmail his competitors, thus managing to bring coal mines under his control, which he would then transfer to Cypriot offshore companies. The Guardian brought details of the way Shchukin operated to light. According to the British newspaper, the former director of the “Gramoteyinskaya” and “Tagaryshskaya” mines, Igor Rudyk, was arrested on the unprecedented charge of… having an expired passport! After being detained for 24 days, Rudyk was informed that he was facing a five-year prison sentence. He later stated to The Guardian that they had offered to release him, with the condition that he would sign the concession of the coal mines. “I did it because I wanted to get out,” he stressed. According to the report, when the “Gramoteyinskaya” mine came into Shchukin’s possession, it was transferred to an offshore company in Cyprus, called “Cyrith Holding”. “All the Russian businessmen knew that London was the best place to have their money and Cyprus the best transit point for this cause,” said versia.ru. The same report makes extensive reference to the activities of people in Shchukin’s close family circle. Specifically, the husband of Shchukin’s daughter Elena, Ildar Uzbekov, son of a former senior executive of Russian energy giant “Gazprom”, appears to be the individual in charge of transferring the capital from Russia to Britain, via companies registered in Cyprus. “According to ancient Greek myth, the goddess Aphrodite was born on the island of Cyprus through the seafoam. Today, this myth has taken a different dimension: ‘dirty and criminal’ capital arrives from Russia to the island of Aphrodite. There it is laundered and then sent to the United Kingdom as clean money,” said versia.ru, adding that Shchukin, with the help of his son-in-law, transferred some €500 million to the United Kingdom through Cyprus. Under house arrest for bribery with a BMW X5 A different case of attempting to extract a coal mine was the reason that led to Alexander Shchukin’s arrest, when the company’s major shareholder Razrez Inskoy appealed to the Federal Authorities of Russia. Two deputy governors, the head of the district Crime Investigation Department, the investigator and Alexander Shchukin’s associates were arrested as well. According to a report by Russian newspaper Kommersant, Shchukin was charged with extortion and attempted bribery. In court he admitted to attempting to bribe the head of the district CID with a BMW X5 car. Today, he is under house arrest, while the Russian police appear to have applied to Interpol to investigate all of Shchukin’s offshore companies and bank accounts in Cyprus. While the uproar in the US over the moves of the former head of Donald Trump’s election campaign, Paul Manafort, via Cyprus continues with unabated vigour, the reports over the Shchukin case are intensifying concerns. Either way, the Republic’s Authorities have clarified that Cyprus has made all the necessary checks and signed agreements with foreign organisations for the best possible management of the phenomenon of tax evasion and money laundering. They also stress that Cyprus underwent strict checks in the era of the bailout memorandum, while it continues to report to the EU as well as the IMF as regards money laundering. The Central Bank said in an announcement that it assesses and supervises the implementation of the requirements of the relevant legal and regulatory framework for money laundering by the supervised institutions, based on international and European standards.
News Article | May 25, 2017
Vladimir Putin’s regime is using Gazprom, Russia’s national natural gas company, to fund aggression ranging from bribery of other countries’ officials and undermining their regulatory efforts to planting false news reports aimed at disrupting their elections, an Atlantic Council issue brief has charged.
News Article | May 25, 2017
• This story was originally published on 28 April 2017 A Republican congressional candidate has financial ties to a number of Russian companies that have been sanctioned by the US, the Guardian has learned. Greg Gianforte, who is the GOP standard bearer in the upcoming special election in Montana, owns just under $250,000 in shares in two index funds that are invested in the Russian economy to match its overall performance. According to a financial disclosure filed with the clerk of the House of Representatives, the Montana tech mogul owns almost $150,000 worth of shares in VanEck Vectors Russia ETF and $92,400 in the IShares MSCF Russia ETF fund. Both are indexed to the Russian equities market and have significant holdings in companies such as Gazprom and Rosneft that came under US sanctions in the aftermath of the Russian invasion of the Crimea. The holdings, while substantial, make up only a small portion of Gianforte’s wealth. The congressional candidate, who made a fortune starting a software company which was later sold to Oracle, has assets estimated to be worth between $65m and $315m, according to his financial disclosure. Richard Nephew, the former principal deputy coordinator for sanctions policy at the state department, told the Guardian that “there is definitely a question here but my initial reaction is that this is not something to freak out about”. He added: “Index funds are usually just like mutual funds, excluded from consideration from a sanctions perspective because the ownership stake per person is incredibly small.” But he noted that it did raise some concerns from “a Russia policy perspective” as a conflict of interest because “betting on Russia’s economy is problematic”. Shane Scanlon, a spokesman for Gianforte, told the Guardian that the Republican candidate did not oversee his portfolio on a day-to-day basis. Instead, Gianforte focused on the “overall performance”, he said. If elected, he said, the Montana Republican would put all his assets in a blind trust to avoid any conflict of interest as well as the fact that Gianforte had released 10 years of tax returns. He added in a statement: “Greg strongly believes his personal assets should never influence his decision-making in office.” Regarding Gianforte’s views on Russia, Scanlon said: “The situation with Russia is the result of the last eight years of a failed policy by President Obama. The US and our allies need to work together on a long-term strategy to stand against Russian aggression in the region and to ensure the sovereignty of our allies is protected. In any foreign policy decision, we must always ensure that America’s interests are protected.” But Tina Olechowski, a spokesman for Gianforte’s opponent, Democrat Rob Quist, used the investments to attack the Republican candidate. “Montana voters deserve to know why Greg Gianforte held on to his shady Russian investments after Putin invaded Ukraine, and again when Russia was accused of interfering in the presidential election,” said Olechowski. “Instead Gianforte kept his Russian ties secret during his failed run for governor last year.” She also emphasized Quist’s strong stance again Russia. “Putin’s Russia invaded Ukraine and interfered in last fall’s presidential election,” said Olechowski. “That kind of aggression is a clear threat to our democracy and global security, and in Congress Rob would evaluate all of our options including whether it makes sense to step up military aid to Ukraine.” Montana’s special election will be held on 25 May to fill the vacancy created by Republican Ryan Zinke’s resignation to become Donald Trump’s secretary of interior.
News Article | May 28, 2017
May 31, 15.00 hrs, Stand № 19 of the sport zone in the Passage (Expo Forum) This is the start of the Global Sport Forum on May 31, on the so-termed “Zero Day” of SPIEF’17, where the VTB Arena Park project will present the VTB Arena Open interactive basketball mini-ground. The inauguration program comprises: master class by an experienced coach, contests, quizzes, commemorative prizes. Throughout the Forum its guests will have an opportunity to make at the stand a brief departure from bustle and engagement in solution of complex economic problems through practicing in accuracy of basketball shots and familiarizing themselves with the VTB Arena Park more in detail. At the end of the event an opening plenary session of the Global Sport Forum titled the Sport – New Ground for Dialogue at International Economic Fora will take place in the same sector. Andrei Peregudov, Senior Vice-President of VTB Bank, Alexander Medvedev, Deputy Chairman of the Board of PAO Gazprom, Vladimir Dmitriev, Vice-President of the CCI of Russia and Head of the European Tennis Association, Ron Duguay, Canadian ice hockey player, and other prominent persons are among the participants. The Sport – Area of Trust special session is organized by the Roscongress Fund and the VTB Arena Park project. The event will be attended by: Alexander Zhukov, First Deputy Chairman of the State Duma and President of the Russia Olympic Committee, Pavel Kolobkov, RF Sport Minister, Vasily Titov, Deputy President-Chairman of the VTB Bank, Alexander Karelin, State Duma Deputy and three times Olympic champion, Sergey Karjakin, chess vice-champion of the world, Jordi Bertomeu , the Euroleague President. The session participants will hold discussions on how to ensure transparency and independence of key decision-making in the world sports, steps to be taken for strengthening the Russia positions in international sport structures with due account for examples of the county participation in integration processes and reformation of global sports. The VTB Arena Open: Match of Two Capitals Gala basketball game of Moscow and Sankt-Petersburg selection teams will take place, with the Roscongress Fund Cup awarded to the winner. The match is expected to be one of the most breathtaking events of the SPIEF’17 sport program. High-profile politicians, businessmen, actors, sportsmen will join the two teams: Sergey Ivanov, Special Representative of President of Russia on environment protection activities, ecology and transport, Arkady Dvorkovich, Deputy Prime Minister of the RF Government, Alexander Novak, RF Minister of Energy, Alexander Konovalov, RF Minister of Justice, Pavel Kolobkov, RF Minister of Sports, Victor Evtukhov, RF Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade, Alexander Zhukov, President of the Russia Olympic Committee, Georgy Poltavchenko, Governor of Sankt-Petersburg, Sergey Sobyanin, Mayor of Moscow, Sergey Kushchenko, President of the VTB United League. Participation of a strong Serbian delegation in this basketbol festival is expected. The Economics of Sports: Effective Co-operation of State, Media and Business on the Threshold of the World Cup 2018 session is organized by the Sovetskiy Sport Publishing House. Its participants, including Vitaly Mutko, Deputy Prime Minister of the RF Government and President of the Russian Football Union, Oleg Safonov, Head of the Federal Tourism Agency, Tina Kandelaki, General Producer of the Match-TV channel, Andrei Peregudov, Senior Vice -President of VTB Bank and Head of the VTB Arena Park project, David Neal, Executive Producer of the Fox Sports, and others, will discuss preparation for the World Cup 2018 and subsequent efficient utilization of investments in the Cup with a view to increasing the Russia potential in the tourism sector and recreation organization on the sport event sites, and their overall impact on general economic climate in Russia regions; the participants will also apprise social consequences of sport mega-events. The Sport Facilities as Innovative Driver for City Development panel session is organized by the RBK Publishing House. Discussions on the issues of sport infrastructure development, co-operation of state and business for realization of strategically important sport objects, breakthrough methods of stadiums and concert complexes monetization, leadership role in sport project success, as well as problems of major sport event organization will be held with participation of Igor Albin, Deputy Mayor of Sankt-Petersburg, Maxim Reshetnikov, acting Governor of the Perm Region, Anton Alikhanov, acting Governor of the Kaliningrad Region, Anatoly Pakhomov, Head of the City of Sochi, Andrei Peregudov, Senior Vice-President of VTB Bank and Head of the VTB Arena Park project, Ilia Averbukh, Honored Master of Sports and silver medalist of Olympic Games, Dmitry Konov, Chairman of the Board of OOO SIBUR, Alexander Galitsky, founder of the Almaz Capital Partners Fund . Apart from that, signing of a number of important agreements between the VTB Arena Park project and major international companies is planned within the Forum framework. The place and date of the signing will be announced later. Summary of Information The VTB Arena Park is a project of integrated development of territory comprising the construction of a multipurpose sport and concert-entertainment complex (VTB Arena and Dinamo Central Stadium), Dinamo Sport Academy, Arena Park city block, as well as Dinamo Sport Park of 8 hectares in area. The overall area of the project under implementation is about 32 hectares. The title partner and the owner of the project is VTB Bank (PJSC). The Arena Park Events is a company established within the framework of the VTB Arena Park project to develop and organize concert and sport events, high-profile ceremonies, implement sponsorship programs, sign partnership agreements with major international brands, mobilize additional investments for realization of partnership projects, such as development of Dinamo Physical Culture and Sports Park, sport museum, redevelopment of historic buildings. The Roscongress Fund was established in 2007 with a view to supporting development of the Russia economic potential and reinforcement of the Russia image through organization and hosting of congresses, exhibitions, and public events. The Fund forms substantial part of the events, provides consultative, information and expert support to companies and organizations, as well as thoroughly studies, analyses, and gives coverage to issues of the Russia and global economic agenda.
News Article | May 24, 2017
American intelligence communities agree: Russia interfered in the U.S. presidential election. It also tried to interfere in the French presidential election. The Kremlin denies it, of course, but from the spate of recent headlines about the former Soviet Republic, it's easy to assume that Russia's primary occupation is undermining democratic processes. Yet the easiest conclusion isn't necessarily the best one. Russia has within its massive borders more than just some of the most audacious hackers in the world: it's also home to some of the largest banking, oil and gas operations on earth. Russia lays claim to 27 companies on the 2017 edition of the FORBES Global 2000, our annual and comprehensive list of the world’s most powerful public companies as measured by a composite score of revenue, profit, assets and market value. In some cases, the claim is more than just geographic: the Russian government owns significant chunks of some of the top companies on the list, including gas company , banking giant and utility company Rosseti. (For more on Russia's ownership stakes in its biggest companies, see this story here.) Aside from boasting hefty ownership stakes from the Russian government, Gazprom and Sberbank are also the number-one and -two companies in country. Gazprom, which holds the world's largest natural gas reserves ranked #40 on the overall Global 2000, up from #53 in 2016. The jump in ranking came in part because of the company's profit, which surged from $4.9 billion in the period analyzed in 2016 to $12.1 billion he trailing twelve months ending on April 7, 2017. Other Russian entries on the Global 2000 are less connected to the Russian state than they are to Russian billionaires: natural gas producer , which took the 542nd spot on the list, has as a shareholder Gennady Timchenko -- an alleged member of Vladimir Putin's inner circle. His 23% stake in Novatek jumped in value in the last year, bringing his net worth to $16 billion. And Novolipetsk, one of Russia's four big steel companies and the 1009th company on the Global 2000, has as its majority shareholder Vladimir Lisin -- a man whose fortune jumped from under $10 billion last year to $16.1 billion this year. Overall, Russia's 27 companies on the Global 2000 represent $455.8 billion in market value and reaped $472 billion in sales and $61.2 billion in profit last year. (Global 2000 data looked at financial performance for the trailing twelve months ending on April 7, 2017.) The FORBES Global 2000 ranking is based on a composite score from equally-weighted measures of revenue, profits, assets and market value. The 2017 list features public companies from 58 countries that together account for $35.3 trillion in revenue, $2.5 trillion in profit, $169.1 trillion of assets, and have a combined market value of $48.8 trillion. For more coverage of the FORBES Global 2000 ranking of the world’s largest public companies, see below: Global 2000: The Largest Companies In China In 2017 Here's How Much Of Russia's Biggest Banks And Drillers The Kremlin Owns World's Largest Retailers 2017: Amazon & Alibaba Are Closing In On Wal-Mart World's Largest Food And Beverage Companies 2017: Nestle, Pepsi And Coca-Cola Dominate The Field
Gazprom | Date: 2014-12-11
Pipeline transport of hydrocarbons detect the moisture accumulation location along the pipeline and increase effectiveness of the drying process. Drying air moisture content reduction is obtained by the installing additional intermediate air drying devices in by-pass lines at block valve station along the pipeline to be dried. Purging is proceeded until normalized dew point temperature value of the outcoming air being achieved. Purging is interrupted for 12 hours or more, both upstream and downstream ends of pipeline leaving hermetically closed, and resumed with intermediate air drying devices disabled, continuously measuring the moisture content of the outcoming drying air, fixing the moment when the moisture accumulation in the surrounding air.
News Article | May 12, 2017
— WiseGuyReports.com adds Exclusive Research on “Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Sales Market Report 2017” reports to its database. In this report, the global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. Geographically, this report split global into several key Regions, with sales (K Units), revenue (Million USD), market share and growth rate of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) for these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering United States China Europe Japan Southeast Asia India Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Environmental Management Systems (EMS) sales volume, Price (USD/Unit), revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including IBM Fujitsu TDK Ricoh Group TUV SUD EY SKF General Services Administration (GSA) Gazprom APC ROHM BSI Group Continental Corporation RELX Group Braun Intertec MTS Allstream Schenck SABS Unilever Southern Company EIZO On the basis of product, this report displays the sales volume (K Units), revenue (Million USD), product price (USD/Unit), market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into ISO 14001 EMAS On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) for each application, including Oil & Gas Water & Waste Water Treatment Power and Energy Telecom and IT Others Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Sales Market Report 2017 1 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) 1.2 Classification of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) by Product Category 1.2.1 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Market Size (Sales) Comparison by Type (2012-2022) 1.2.2 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Market Size (Sales) Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2016 1.2.3 ISO 14001 1.2.4 EMAS 1.3 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Market by Application/End Users 1.3.1 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Sales (Volume) and Market Share Comparison by Application (2012-2022) 1.3.2 Oil & Gas 1.3.3 Water & Waste Water Treatment 1.3.4 Power and Energy 1.3.5 Telecom and IT 1.3.6 Others 1.4 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Market by Region 1.4.1 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Market Size (Value) Comparison by Region (2012-2022) 1.4.2 United States Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.3 China Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.4 Europe Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.5 Japan Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.4.7 India Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Status and Prospect (2012-2022) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value and Volume) of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) (2012-2022) 1.5.1 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Sales and Growth Rate (2012-2022) 1.5.2 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Revenue and Growth Rate (2012-2022) …. 9 Global Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Players/Suppliers Profiles and Sales Data 9.1 IBM 9.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.1.2 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Product Category, Application and Specification 188.8.131.52 Product A 184.108.40.206 Product B 9.1.3 IBM Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 9.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.2 Fujitsu 9.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.2.2 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Product Category, Application and Specification 220.127.116.11 Product A 18.104.22.168 Product B 9.2.3 Fujitsu Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 9.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.3 TDK 9.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.3.2 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Product Category, Application and Specification 22.214.171.124 Product A 126.96.36.199 Product B 9.3.3 TDK Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 9.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.4 Ricoh Group 9.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.4.2 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Product Category, Application and Specification 188.8.131.52 Product A 184.108.40.206 Product B 9.4.3 Ricoh Group Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2012-2017) 9.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview 9.5 TUV SUD 9.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors 9.5.2 Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Product Category, Application and Specification 220.127.116.11 Product A 18.104.22.168 Product B …Continued For more information, please visit http://www.wiseguyreports.com
News Article | May 8, 2017
Don’t look now, but Russia could get greener—and it has nothing to do with climate change melting the Siberian permafrost. In a country known for deriving a huge amount of its wealth and economic activity from state-owned oil and gas companies, it may come as a surprise to hear that president Vladimir Putin has been speaking favorably about clean energy lately. The country’s energy ministry also endorsed a recent report from the International Renewable Energy Agency that suggested that Russia has plenty of potential for developing renewables. There’s certainly plenty of room for improvement. At the moment, renewables account for only about 3.6 percent of Russia’s energy consumption (paywall). By comparison, the U.S., which is itself a laggard compared to many countries, derives about 10 percent of the energy it consumes from renewable sources. According to an article in the Financial Times that cites the IRENA report, Russia could expand its renewable portfolio up to 11.3 percent of consumption by 2030. That would be far from world-beating, but would still require about $15 billion a year in investments, according to IRENA. Even assuming Putin and his administration are serious about backing up their words with deeds, the financial and political might of the fossil fuel giants Gazprom and Rosneft—which are essentially arms of the Russian government—could make ramping up renewables difficult. Russia also lacks a national power grid, so it wouldn’t be able to transport energy generated by, say, wind or solar outside of the regions in which they are generated. This is something that the U.S. struggles with as well, though a revamped grid in Texas has proven that large infrastructure investments can help renewables flourish. Russia, like the U.S. (for the moment, anyway), is a party to the Paris climate agreement, with a pledge to keep its greenhouse gas emissions at least 25 percent below 1990 levels by 2020. While it hasn’t been terribly transparent on how it plans to do that—or outlined any plans for further cuts—it has said it is cleaning up emissions from flaring at oil and gas fields. And in statements made to the United Nations ahead of climate talks later this week, Russian officials wrote that their country was planning a more than tenfold increase in non-hydroelectric renewables by 2035.
News Article | May 7, 2017
"Construction of the TurkStream gas pipeline began in the Black Sea near the Russian coast," Gazprom said in a statement (AFP Photo/ERIC PIERMONT) Moscow (AFP) - Russian gas firm Gazprom said Sunday construction had begun of a gas pipeline under the Black Sea to Turkey meant to eventually also serve the European Union. "Construction of the TurkStream gas pipeline began in the Black Sea near the Russian coast," Gazprom said in a statement. "Implementation of the project is on schedule and our Turkish and European customers will from the end of 2019 have a reliable new route for importing Russian gas," said Gazprom's chief executive Alexei Miller in the statement. Russia first floated the project in 2014 after the EU blocked plans for a pipeline under the Black Sea to Bulgaria at the height of the Ukraine crisis. A diplomatic crisis following the shooting down of a Russian bomber overflying the Turkish-Syrian border delayed the project, which was revived when bilateral relations were mended last year. Two lines capable of carrying 15.75 billion cubic metres of gas per year each will be built. With Turkstream Russia aims to not only reinforce its capacity to deliver gas to Turkey, but to also make it a transit country in place of Ukraine, even if the prospects of that are uncertain given the EU's hostility towards new Russian pipelines.
Gazprom | Date: 2013-12-27
Gas turbine unit (GTV) provides compressed air and steam methane-hydrogen mixture to a combustion chamber to enrich combustion products and cooling by evaporation or superheating of water steam. The temperature of heat exchange processes of the gas turbine unit is increased by additional fuel combustion in the steam-methane-hydrogen mixture postcombustion flow extracted at the output from the additional free work gas turbine, and before supply of steam-methane-hydrogen mixture to the combustion chamber it is previously cooled to the temperature of 200+240 C. with simultaneous differential condensation of water steam. The condensate is processed for preparation of methane steam-gas mixture and low pressure water steam which is passed through the additional free work gas turbine.