Vishākhapatnam, India
Vishākhapatnam, India

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Bathina S.,Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital | Srinivas N.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Das U.N.,Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2017

Background Neurodegenerative disorders, such as deficits in learning, memory and cognition and Alzheimer's disease are associated with diabetes mellitus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor and is known to possess anti-obesity, anti-diabetic actions and is believed to have a role in memory and Alzheimer's disease. Objective To investigate whether STZ can reduce BDNF production by rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells in vitro and decrease BDNF levels in the pancreas, liver and brain in vivo. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells in vitro and type 2 DM in Wistar rats was employed in the present study. Cell viability, activities of various anti-oxidants and secretion of BDNF by RIN5F cells in vitro were measured using MTT assay, biochemical methods and ELISA respectively. In STZ-induced type 2 DM rats: plasma glucose, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels and BDNF protein expression in the pancreas, liver and brain tissues were measured. In addition, neuronal count and morphology in the hippocampus and hypothalamus areas was assessed. Results STZ-induced suppression of RIN5F cell viability was abrogated by BDNF. STZ suppressed BDNF secretion by RIN5F cells in vitro. STZ-induced type 2 DM rats showed hyperglycemia, enhanced plasma IL-6 and TNF-αlevels and reduced plasma and pancreas, liver and brain tissues (P < 0.001) and increased oxidative stress compared to untreated control. Hypothalamic and hippocampal neuron in STZ-treated animals showed a decrease in the number of neurons and morphological changes suggesting of STZ cytotoxicity. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that STZ is not only cytotoxic to pancreatic beta cells but also to hypothalamic and hippocampal neurons by inducing oxidative stress. STZ ability to suppress BDNF production by pancreas, liver and brain tissues suggests that impaired memory, learning, and cognitive dysfunction seen in diabetes mellitus could be due to BDNF deficiency. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Gundala N.K.V.,Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital | Naidu V.G.M.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Das U.N.,Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital
Nutrition | Year: 2017

Objective The aim of this study was to observe whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5 F) cells against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) in vivo and if so, what would be the mechanism of this action. Methods RIN5 F cells were used for the in vitro study, whereas the in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. STZ was used to induce apoptosis of RIN5 F cells in vitro and T1- and T2DM in vivo. The effect of PUFAs: γ-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (AA) of ω-6 series, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of ω-3 series; cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors and antiinflammatory metabolite of AA and DHA, lipoxin A4 (LXA4), and resolvin D2 and protectin, respectively against STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and LXA4 against T1- and T2DM in vivo was studied. Changes in the antioxidant content, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and expression of PDX1, P65, nuclear factor-κb (NF-κb), and IKB genes in STZ-treated RIN5 F cells in vitro and Nrf2, GLUT2, COX2, iNOS protein levels in the pancreatic tissue of T1- and T2DM and LPCLN2 (lipocalin 2), NF-κb, IKB I in adipose tissue of T2DM after LXA4 treatment were studied. Plasma glucose, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels also were measured in STZ-induced T1- and T2DM Wistar rats. Results Among all PUFAs tested, AA and EPA are the most effective against STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro. Neither COX nor LOX inhibitors blocked the cytoprotective action of AA in vitro and T1- and T2DM by STZ. LXA4 production by RIN5 F cells in vitro and plasma LXA4 levels in STZ-induced T1- and T2DM animals were decreased by STZ that reverted to normal after AA treatment. AA prevented both T1- and T2DM induced by STZ. Antiinflammatory metabolite of AA and LXA4 prevented both T1- and T2DM induced by STZ. The expression of Pdx1, NF-κb, IKB genes in the pancreas and plasma TNF-α levels in T1- and T2DM; Nrf2, Glut2, COX2, and iNOS proteins in pancreatic tissue of T1DM and LPCLN2, NF-κb, IKB I in adipose tissue of T2DM reverted to normal in LXA4-treated animals. Conclusion Both AA and LXA4 prevented STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and T1- and T2DM in vivo, suggesting that these two bioactive lipids may function as antidiabetic molecules. AA is beneficial against STZ-induced cytotoxicity and T1- and T2DM by enhancing the production of LXA4. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital
Nutrition | Year: 2015

Nutritional factors such as magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, l-arginine, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) appear to be significantly beneficial for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in the prevention and arresting the progression of HF and cardiac arrhythmias. Additionally, ingestion of adequate amounts of protein and maintaining normal concentrations of plasma albumin seem to be essential for these patients. These nutrients closely interact with the metabolism of l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) system, essential fatty acids, and eicosanoids such that beneficial products such as NO, prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, prostaglandin I3, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins are generated and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines is suppressed that results in platelet anti-aggregation, vasodilation, angiogenesis, and prevention of CAD, cardiac arrhythmias, and stabilization of HF. This implies that individuals at high risk for CAD, cardiac arrhythmias, and HF and those who have these diseases need to be screened for plasma levels of magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, l-arginine, NO, various PUFAs, lipoxin A4, resolvins, protectins, asymmetrical dimethylarginine (an endogenous inhibitor of NO), albumin, and various eicosanoids and cytokines and correct their abnormalities to restore normal physiology. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Bathina S.,Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital | Srinivas N.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Das U.N.,Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2016

Objective The study was conducted to observe whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has cytoprotective actions against alloxan (AL), streptozotocin (STZ), doxorubicin (DB) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) compounds in vitro that may account for its beneficial action in diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods This in vitro study was performed using rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells. Possible cytoprotective action of BDNF (using pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment schedules of RIN5F cells with BDNF) against the four chemicals tested was evaluated using MTT and apoptosis assays. Possible mechanism of cytoprotective action of BDNF was assessed by measuring BCl2/IKB-β/Pdx mRNA transcripts and anti-oxidant levels in RIN5F cells. Effect of alloxan, STZ, doxorubicin and BP on the production of BDNF by RIN5F cells was also studied. Results Results of the present study revealed that BDNF in the doses (100 ng > 50 ng > 10 ng/ml) has significant cytoprotection (P < 0.001, P < 0.01) on cytotoxic action of AL, STZ, DB and BP against rat insulinoma RIN5F (5 × 104 cells/100 μl) cells in vitro. It was observed that AL, STZ, DB and BP inhibited BDNF production significantly (P < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner by RIN5F cells (0.5 × 106 cells/500 μl) in vitro, while BDNF not only prevented apoptosis induced by these four chemicals but also significantly increased (P < 0.001) BCl2/IKB-β/Pdx mRNA transcripts and restored anti-oxidant levels (P < 0.01) in RIN5F cells to normal. Discussion These results suggest that BDNF has potent cytoprotective actions, restores anti-oxidant defenses to normal and thus, prevents apoptosis and preserves insulin secreting capacity of β cells. In addition, BDNF enhanced viability of RIN 5F in vitro. Thus, BDNF not only has anti-diabetic actions but also preserves pancreatic β cells integrity and enhances their viability. These results imply that BDNF functions as an endogenous cytoprotective molecule that may explain its beneficial actions in some neurological conditions as well. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research and Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital
Type: | Journal: BioFactors (Oxford, England) | Year: 2016

We studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells against alloxan-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in vivo and if so, mechanism of this beneficial action.In vitro study was conducted using RIN5F cells while in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. The effect of PUFAs, cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, various eicosanoids and PUFAs metabolites: lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D2 and protectin against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and type 1 DM was studied. Expression of PDX1, P65 NF-kB and IKB in RIN5F cells and Nrf2, GLUT2, COX2, iNOS protein levels in the pancreatic tissue and plasma glucose, insulin and tumor necrosis factor- and antioxidants, lipid peroxides and nitric oxide were measured.Of all, arachidonic acid (AA) was found to be the most effective against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and preventing type 1 DM. Both cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors did not block the beneficial actions of AA in vitro and in vivo. Alloxan inhibited LXA4 production by RIN5F cells and in alloxan-induced type 1 DM Wistar rats. AA-treatment restored LXA4 levels to normal both in vitro and in vivo. LXA4 protected RIN5F cells against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity and prevented type 1 DM and restored expression of Nrf2, Glut2, COX2, and iNOS genes and abnormal antioxidants to near normal.AA seems to bring about its beneficial actions against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity and type 1 DM by enhancing the production of LXA4. 2016 BioFactors, 2016.


PubMed | National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research and Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Metabolism: clinical and experimental | Year: 2016

The study was conducted to observe whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has cytoprotective actions against alloxan (AL), streptozotocin (STZ), doxorubicin (DB) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) compounds in vitro that may account for its beneficial action in diabetes mellitus.This in vitro study was performed using rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells. Possible cytoprotective action of BDNF (using pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment schedules of RIN5F cells with BDNF) against the four chemicals tested was evaluated using MTT and apoptosis assays. Possible mechanism of cytoprotective action of BDNF was assessed by measuring BCl2/IKB-/Pdx mRNA transcripts and anti-oxidant levels in RIN5F cells. Effect of alloxan, STZ, doxorubicin and BP on the production of BDNF by RIN5F cells was also studied.Results of the present study revealed that BDNF in the doses (100ng>50ng>10ng/ml) has significant cytoprotection (P<0.001, P<0.01) on cytotoxic action of AL, STZ, DB and BP against rat insulinoma RIN5F (510(4) cells/100l) cells in vitro. It was observed that AL, STZ, DB and BP inhibited BDNF production significantly (P<0.001) in a dose-dependent manner by RIN5F cells (0.510(6) cells/500l) in vitro, while BDNF not only prevented apoptosis induced by these four chemicals but also significantly increased (P<0.001) BCl2/IKB-/Pdx mRNA transcripts and restored anti-oxidant levels (P<0.01) in RIN5F cells to normal.These results suggest that BDNF has potent cytoprotective actions, restores anti-oxidant defenses to normal and thus, prevents apoptosis and preserves insulin secreting capacity of cells. In addition, BDNF enhanced viability of RIN 5F in vitro. Thus, BDNF not only has anti-diabetic actions but also preserves pancreatic cells integrity and enhances their viability. These results imply that BDNF functions as an endogenous cytoprotective molecule that may explain its beneficial actions in some neurological conditions as well.

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