Phillips R.O.,Gaustadalleen 21 |
Fyhri A.,Gaustadalleen 21 |
Sagberg F.,Gaustadalleen 21
Risk Analysis | Year: 2011
This study investigated risk compensation by cyclists in response to bicycle helmet wearing by observing changes in cycling behavior, reported experience of risk, and a possible objective measure of experienced risk. The suitability of heart rate variability (HRV) as an objective measure of experienced risk was assessed beforehand by recording HRV measures in nine participants watching a thriller film. We observed a significant decrease in HRV in line with expected increases in psychological challenge presented by the film. HRV was then used along with cycling pace and self-reported risk in a field experiment in which 35 cyclist volunteers cycled 0.4 km downhill, once with and once without a helmet. Routine helmet users reported higher experienced risk and cycled slower when they did not wear their helmet in the experiment than when they did wear their helmet, although there was no corresponding change in HRV. For cyclists not accustomed to helmets, there were no changes in speed, perceived risk, or any other measures when cycling with versus without a helmet. The findings are consistent with the notion that those who use helmets routinely perceive reduced risk when wearing a helmet, and compensate by cycling faster. They thus give some support to those urging caution in the use of helmet laws. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.
Herslund L.B.,Copenhagen University |
Jalayer F.,University of Naples Federico II |
Jean-Baptiste N.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Jorgensen G.,Copenhagen University |
And 7 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2015
In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub-Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particular focus on urban flooding. The multi-dimensional assessment covered the physical, institutional, attitudinal and asset factors influencing urban vulnerability. Multiple methods were applied to cover the full range of vulnerabilities and to identify potential response strategies, including: model-based forecasts, spatial analyses, document studies, interviews and stakeholder workshops. We demonstrate the potential of the approach to assessing several dimensions of vulnerability and illustrate the complexity of urban vulnerability at different scales: households (e.g., lacking assets); communities (e.g., situated in low-lying areas, lacking urban services and green areas); and entire cities (e.g., facing encroachment on green and flood-prone land). Scenario modeling suggests that vulnerability will continue to increase strongly due to the expected loss of agricultural land at the urban fringes and loss of green space within the city. However, weak institutional commitment and capacity limit the potential for strategic coordination and action. To better adapt to urban flooding and thereby reduce vulnerability and build resilience, we suggest working across dimensions and scales, integrating climate change issues in city-level plans and strategies and enabling local actions to initiate a ‘learning-by-doing’ process of adaptation. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Rauken T.,P.B. 1129 Blindem |
Kelman I.,P.B. 1129 Blindem |
Jacobsen J.K.S.,Gaustadalleen 21 |
Hovelsrud G.K.,P.B. 1129 Blindem
Anatolia | Year: 2010
This paper examines the effects of summer season weather and weather changes on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism and hospitality industry as perceived by enterprises in two coastal areas in Northern Norway. The study is concentrated on the possible importance of weather and indirect effects of weather for these businesses. The data are derived from two-stage semi-structured interviews with industry representatives. Weather and weather changes do not stand out as being a major concern among the respondents, although it is acknowledged that some types of weather, notably precipitation and low visibility, can negatively affect businesses. This is a pragmatic view that should be understood in relation to the mainly small operator size and the limited future planning of SMEs. At the same time, the operators are familiar with combining outdoor recreation and unpredictable weather meaning that the weather is just not bad enough to be concerned with, especially given tourist expectations of weather in these locations. © 2010 anatolla Printed in Turkey. All rights reserved.
Pacyna J.M.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research |
Pacyna J.M.,Technical University of Gdansk |
Cousins I.T.,University of Stockholm |
Halsall C.,Lancaster University |
And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2015
Results of the EU ArcRisk project on human health impacts in the Arctic owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling are summarized in the context of their policy application. The question on how will climate change affect the transport of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury, both to and within the Arctic has been addressed, as well as the issue of human health impacts of these pollutants in the Arctic in relation to exposed local populations. It was concluded that better characterization of primary and secondary sources of POPs and more accurate quantification of current and future releases of POPs from these sources are needed for better prediction of environmental exposure to these contaminants and interpretation of monitoring data. Further improvement of fate and transport modeling in the physical environment is necessary in order to consider in the models not only the relatively well studied direct effects of climate change (e.g., changes in temperature, ice and snow cover, precipitation, wind speed and ocean currents) on contaminants fate and behavior but also indirect effects, e.g., alterations in carbon cycling, catchment hydrology, land use, vegetation cover, etc. Long-term environmental monitoring of POPs (at multiple sampling stations within and outside the Arctic and at regular sampling intervals facilitates temporal trend analysis) and measurements of concentrations in human milk and blood plasma are needed. Finally, more information should be gathered on the human health effects of newly identified POPs, such as perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and other substances with POP-like characteristics, particularly the effects on very young (including fetus) and elderly subgroups of the human population. The ArcRisk developed methodologies and tools that can be used in further studies to resolve various uncertainties already defined in the analysis of climate change impacts on POPs and mercury behavior and effects in the Arctic. The ArcRisk project has also developed very valuable databases that can be regarded as a starting point in further studies. © 2015.