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Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Bhanja A.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Bhattacharyya J.,Gauhati Medical College Hospital | Jaganathan B.G.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Tumor Biology

THY1 (CD90) is a 25–37-kDa heavily N-glycosylated, glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored cell surface protein. It is usually expressed on thymocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, natural killer cells, neurons, endothelial cells, renal glomerular mesangial cells, follicular dendritic cells, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts. It has been found to regulate cell adhesion, migration, apoptosis, axon growth, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, T-cell activation, and fibrosis. Several reports have shown that CD90 has an important role in cancer in regulating cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. There are also evidences that CD90 is an important prognostic marker in many cancers. Consequently, therapies that target CD90 have great promise in treating many cancers. However, several studies also indicate a contradictory role for CD90, where it acts as a tumor suppressor. In this review, we summarize the expression, function of CD90 in different cancers and its possible use as a biomarker or a therapeutic target in cancer. The challenges and future prospects for the use of CD90 for clinical applications are also discussed in this review. © 2016 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) Source

Introduction and Objective: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common neoplastic disorder affecting the aging male population worldwide. Various factors such as age, prostate volume, serum prostate-specific antigen, and testicular androgens determine the natural history and its progression. The objective of the study is to correlate the relationship between these factors in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: A total of 121 men aged above 50 years with benign prostatic hyperplasia were enrolled in this study. Patients were evaluated by history, digital rectal examination, focused neurological evaluation, uroflowmetry, transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate, serum prostate-specific antigen, serum testosterone (free and total), and prostate biopsy done in patients with prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/ml to exclude prostatic carcinoma. Patients were divided by age, and a Spearman rank correlation test was done to compare variables. Results: There was a positive correlation within age, prostate volume, and serum prostate-specific antigen level. Age negatively correlated with serum total and free testosterone level. A comparison among serum PSA, prostate volume, and serum testosterone level did not reveal any statistically significant relationship. Conclusion: We observed statistically significant correlations within age, prostate volume, and serum prostatespecific antigen level. These variables bear no significant relationship with serum testosterone levels. Considering the contradictory data on the inter-relationship of various variables, further evaluation in a large cohort of the aging population with benign enlargement of the prostate is needed to establish the influence of one over the other. © 2012 Digital Science Press, Inc. Source

Nath S.J.,Gauhati Medical College Hospital
UroToday International Journal

Penile carcinoma with metastasis to umbilicus is a rare entity. We report a case of penile carcinoma with umbilical metastasis in a 46-year-old male. On initial presentation with penile growth over glans and shaft of the penis he was treated by total penectomy with perineal urethrostomy. Three months later, he developed a painful ulcerative mass over umbilicus. Biopsy from the ulcer confirmed metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma penis. Chemotherapy was given, but the patient succumbed to the disease after the first cycle. © 2012 Digital Science Press, Inc. Source

Bawri B.,Gauhati Medical College Hospital
UroToday International Journal

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that accounts for only 0.02% of all cancers. About 60% of patients present with symptoms of excessive hormone production. However, ACC is usually nonfunctional when it occurs in adults. Its presentation with only virilizing symptoms is extremely rare. We report a case of a huge functional, virilizing ACC of the right adrenal gland that measured 14 cm by 9 cm by 6 cm and weighed 600 gm, which was successfully extirpated. ©2012 Digital Science Press, Inc. Source

Sonowal H.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Bhattacharyya J.,Gauhati Medical College Hospital | Gogoi P.K.,Gauhati Medical College Hospital | Jaganathan B.G.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Journal of Biomedical Science

Background: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are important candidates for therapeutic applications due to their ex vivo proliferation and differentiation capacity. MSC differentiation is controlled by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and actin cytoskeleton plays a major role in the event. In the current study, we tried to understand the initial molecular mechanisms and pathways that regulate the differentiation of MSC into osteocytes or adipocytes. Results: We observed that actin modification was important during differentiation and differentially regulated during adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Initial disruption of actin polymerization reduced further differentiation of MSC into osteocytes and osteogenic differentiation was accompanied by increase in ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. However, only p38 MAPK phosphorylation was down regulated upon inhibition of actin polymerization which as accompanied by decreased CD49E expression. Conclusion: Taken together, our results show that actin modification is a pre-requisite for MSC differentiation into osteocytes and adipocytes and osteogenic differentiation is regulated through p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Thus by modifying their cytoskeleton the differentiation potential of MSC could be controlled which might have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. © 2013 Sonowal et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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