Gatorade Sports Science Institute
Gatorade Sports Science Institute
Baker L.B.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute
Sports Medicine | Year: 2017
Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for athletes; however, unstandardized methodological practices and challenging field conditions can produce inconsistent/inaccurate results. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a review of the literature regarding the effect of laboratory and field sweat-testing methodological variations on sweating rate (SR) and sweat composition (primarily sodium concentration [Na+]). The simplest and most accurate method to assess whole-body SR is via changes in body mass during exercise; however, potential confounding factors to consider are non-sweat sources of mass change and trapped sweat in clothing. In addition, variability in sweat [Na+] can result from differences in the type of collection system used (whole body or localized), the timing/duration of sweat collection, skin cleaning procedure, sample storage/handling, and analytical technique. Another aim of this paper is to briefly review factors that may impact intra/interindividual variability in SR and sweat [Na+] during exercise, including exercise intensity, environmental conditions, heat acclimation, aerobic capacity, body size/composition, wearing of protective equipment, sex, maturation, aging, diet, and/or hydration status. In summary, sweat testing can be a useful tool to estimate athletes’ SR and sweat Na+ loss to help guide fluid/electrolyte replacement strategies, provided that data are collected, analyzed, and interpreted appropriately. © 2017, The Author(s).
News Article | April 26, 2017
Available in lemon, orange and berry flavors, G Active is ‘formulated for fitness enthusiasts who lead busy work and home lives, think carefully about what they put in their bodies, and still manage to keep fitness a priority.’ G Active will be available in major retailers in Australia from April 30. A pop-up fitness destination, ‘G Active HydroGym’, will be set up in Sydney Harbour on April 28-29 to promote the launch. G Active will team up with fitness and nutrition experts - Amanda Bisk, Daniel Conn and Luke Hines – at the fitness hotspot. PepsiCo Australia and New Zealand’s nutrition scientist Vered Moses said, “Gatorade understands there is a spectrum of different hydration needs based on level of fitness, activity and personal goals, and is backed by more than 50 years of research into hydration and nutrition by the Gatorade Sports Science Institute. “While Gatorade contains the sugars and calories necessary to fuel competitive athletes, G Active was formulated for fitness exercisers to replace what is lost in exercise without unnecessary sugars. “Formulated with electrolytes, G Active helps replace what is lost in sweat through the key electrolyte, sodium, which ensures hydration by stimulating thirst and supporting fluid balance.” Discount supermarket ALDI has launched a collection of eight ‘ecologically aware wines’ in the UK, seeing a growing trend of conscious consumerism. Each of the wines in the collection eschews usual production methods and boasts organic, carbon neutral or ‘no added sulphur’ credentials. ALDI believes the wines will appeal to the ‘wholefoods generation’; millennial shoppers who are increasingly concerned with the environmental impact of the produce they are buying and consuming. There are four certified organic wines: one sparkling (Organic Prosecco DOC 2016, £7.99), two French whites from wine maker Jean Claude Mas (Jean Claude Mas Classic Organic Vin Blanc 2016, £5.99 and Jean Claude Mas Estate Organic Sud de France 2016, £6.99), along with an organic version of one of ALDI’s bestselling red wines, the Toro Loco Organic 2015, £4.99, a blend of Bobal, Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. A pair of 100% certified carbon neutral wines from Wakefield, the family vineyard behind Aldi’s Exquisite Collection Clare Valley Riesling are the 80 Acres Carbon Neutral Shiraz Viognier 2015, £6.99, and the 80 Acres Carbon Neutral Cabernet Shiraz Merlot 2015, £6.99. The two natural ‘no sulphur added’ red wines are Origin Pure No Sulphur Added Cabernet Sauvignon 2015, £5.49 and Earth’s Essence No Sulphur Added Shiraz 2016, £6.99: which use natural farming techniques and are made without preservative sulphur dioxide. The wines are each priced below £8. Tony Baines, joint managing director of Corporate Buying, ALDI, said: “Our collection of organic, carbon neutral and no sulphur wines are bursting with personality and we’re delighted to prove that high quality, eco-friendly products needn’t be a luxury, accompanied by a high price tag.” Iceland craft beer in the US Iceland brewery Einstök Ölgerð will make its White Ale and Arctic Pale Ale available in 330ml cans in the US in May. They join the summer seasonal Arctic Berry Ale, which was launched in cans worldwide in 2015. Packed in photodegradable six-pack rings, these styles will continue to also be available in 330ml bottles and in kegs. Einstök Toasted Porter and Wee Heavy Scottish Ale are scheduled to be released in 330ml cans in the Fall 2017. Jack Sichterman, founder and beermaster, said: “Our fans tend to be adventurous and on the move, whether that’s going to concerts, beaches, ballgames and other events. “When consumed responsibly, cans support that lifestyle, while also doing a better job protecting the beer and its flavor on the journey from Iceland.” Einstök is currently available in 15 US states. US distillery Bloomery Plantation Distillery has launched an all-natural green liqueur called Cré (Irish Gaelic for "earth"). The liqueur is made from a collection of botanical ingredients sourced by the distillery with a focus on locally grown ingredients, including ingredients grown on the distillery's 12-acre farm in West Virginia. These ingredients are combined with water and high-proof ‘moonshine’. Cré was released ahead of Earth Day on April 22 to all of the markets where Bloomery Plantation Distillery's SweetShines are already distributed: WV, VA, DC, MD, PA, TN, MA, NY, and RI. It is also available for shipment to 42 states. Cré has an ABV of 42% (84 proof) and comes in a 750ml bottle. NOVELTEA, an alcoholic tea blend, has launched in the UK with two flavors called ‘The Tale of Tangier’ and ‘The Tale of Earl Grey’. The Tale of Tangier is an infusion of Moroccan green mint tea with Caribbean rum for an exotic fruit and floral flavor, while The Tale of Earl Grey infuses Earl Grey tea with British gin and botanicals to deliver a ‘distinctively smooth and rich taste’. NOVELTEA is the brainchild of Vincent Efferoth and Lukas Passia, graduates from Newcastle University. Originally from Germany and having lived in the UK to study, Efferoth and Passia wanted to combine the British fascination for craft beers and spirits with deeply rooted afternoon tea traditions. Efferoth said: “To enhance the taste of tea, we cold-brew The Tale of Earl Grey and The Tale of Tangier for up to 12 hours to develop its smooth taste. This process draws out all the distinctive flavors without causing some of the bitter notes that can be associated with tea. “Cold-brewing also produces lower levels of caffeine by extracting more antioxidants than hot-brewed processes.” NOVELTEA is targeting premium bars and retailers, artisanal food halls and hotels, launching with Fenwick Newcastle as its first retail partner. Following the launch of Mtn Dew Black Label last year, PepsiCo has created the Mtn Dew Label Series, a line of premium soda with ‘crafted unique flavors and herbal and citrus bitters’. The new launches are citrus-flavored Mtn Dew White Label and apple-kiwi flavored Mtn Dew Green Label. Mtn Dew says last year’s Black Label drink, with a ‘dark berry flavor and herbal bitters’, has become one of its most successful product launches thanks to a distinctive flavor and premium ingredients. Mtn Dew Green Label, Mtn Dew White Label and Mtn Dew Black Label are available at retailers nationwide in the US for a suggested retail price of $1.99 per 16-ounce can, with 140 calories per can for the two new launches. Beam Suntory’s super-premium bourbon brand Basil Hayden's has launched its first innovation and limited edition product: Basil Hayden’s Rye Whiskey. “Basil Hayden’s Bourbon has long been known for its trademark spicy finish, resulting from the use of twice as much rye than traditional bourbons. Taking inspiration from this beloved rye spiciness, Basil Hayden’s Rye Whiskey is a natural progression,” says the brand. The whiskey can be sipped neat, on the rocks, or as a base to a cocktail. Packaged with Basil Hayden’s hand-applied parchment bib and copper belt, Basil Hayden’s Rye Whiskey is available now in limited quantities in the US for a suggested retail price of $44.99 for a 750ml bottle. Verday Chlorophyll Water, an RTD chlorophyll beverage, has launched a new blueberry flavor. Verday’s portfolio now has five flavors: blueberry, watermelon, coconut, cucumber and lemongrass ginger. “Verday Chlorophyll Water represents an exciting new beverage category that provides the antioxidant and detoxifying benefits of a ‘green juice’,” says the brand. “The key ingredient of Verday is chlorophyll, the green pigment present in all plants. "Often described as the “building block of life,” chlorophyll is responsible for absorbing sunlight and converting it into energy via photosynthesis. "Each bottle of Verday is packed with 100mg of chlorophyll, which is more than two shots of wheatgrass, four cups of spinach or 12 cups of arugula.” “The perfect addition to a picnic or warm weather gathering, Clos du Bois’ Lightly Effervescent Chardonnay is a fresh new take on America’s favorite varietal, bringing together delightful flavors of apple, pear and crisp citrus with a hint of effervescence,” says the brand. The Chardonnay is available for $12.99 at wine retailers in the US.
Zhang Y.,Zhejiang University of Science and Technology |
Davis J.-K.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute |
Casa D.J.,University of Connecticut |
Bishop P.A.,University of Alabama
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2015
Purpose Cold water immersion (CWI) provides rapid cooling in events of exertional heat stroke. Optimal procedures for CWI in the field are not well established. This meta-analysis aimed to provide structured analysis of the effectiveness of CWI on the cooling rate in healthy adults subjected to exercise-induced hyperthermia. Methods An electronic search (December 2014) was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science. The mean difference of the cooling rate between CWI and passive recovery was calculated. Pooled analyses were based on a random-effects model. Sources of heterogeneity were identified through a mixed-effects model Q statistic. Inferential statistics aggregated the CWI cooling rate for extrapolation. Results Nineteen studies qualified for inclusion. Results demonstrate CWI elicited a significant effect: mean difference, 0.03°C·min-1; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.04°C·min-1. A conservative, observed estimate of the CWI cooling rate was 0.08°C·min-1 across various conditions. CWI cooled individuals twice as fast as passive recovery. Subgroup analyses revealed that cooling was more effective (Q test P < 0.10) when preimmersion core temperature ≥38.6°C, immersion water temperature ≤10°C, ambient temperature ≥20°C, immersion duration ≤10 min, and using torso plus limbs immersion. There is insufficient evidence of effect using forearms/hands CWI for rapid cooling: mean difference, 0.01°C·min-1; 95% confidence interval, -0.01°C·min-1 to 0.04°C·min-1. A combined data summary, pertaining to 607 subjects from 29 relevant studies, was presented for referencing the weighted cooling rate and recovery time, aiming for practitioners to better plan emergency procedures. Conclusions An optimal procedure for yielding high cooling rates is proposed. Using prompt vigorous CWI should be encouraged for treating exercise-induced hyperthermia whenever possible, using cold water temperature (approximately 10°C) and maximizing body surface contact (whole-body immersion). © 2015 by the American College of Sports Medicine.
News Article | October 28, 2016
FoodMinds, an award-winning food and nutrition communications and consulting company, is pleased to welcome Mitch Kanter, PhD as its Chief Science Officer. In his new role, Kanter will work closely with FoodMinds co-founders Laura Cubillos, RD, Bill Layden and Susan Pitman, MA, RD, to advise clients on the critical science and evidentiary issues facing the food, beverage, nutrition, health and wellness sectors. He also will co-lead the Global ExpertBench™, a network of nutrition experts spanning six continents. “Dr. Kanter’s proven track record of success in developing and sustaining effective clinical research and nutrition affairs programs, coupled with his deep insights into the state-of-the-science across multiple food and beverage categories, will be a tremendous asset to our clients and our talented team members,” said FoodMinds co-founder Sue Pitman, MA, RD. Having most recently served as Executive Director of the American Egg Board/Egg Nutrition Center, Dr. Kanter has more than 25 years of experience working for multi-national food companies, including The Quaker Oats/Gatorade Company, General Mills and Cargill. He has served in a variety of roles including Director of the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, and Director of Clinical Nutrition Research and Scientific Communications (Quaker Oats); Director of Health and Nutrition Sciences (General Mills); and Discovery Director, Director of Venturing, and Director of Health and Nutrition (Cargill). Kanter has published numerous articles in scholarly journals, written over 150 articles in health professional and lay-oriented publications, and presented at lay and technical conferences all over the world on topics ranging from nutrition and disease prevention, antioxidant supplementation and health, nutrigenomics, the future of functional foods, and regulatory issues that impact food company health claims. “FoodMinds operates at the intersection of science, communication, public affairs and consumer values,” said Dr. Kanter. “I’m thrilled to have the opportunity to help the team continue to bring value-added insights and programs to our clients, as well as to have a positive impact on public health.” About FoodMinds FoodMinds, a division of PadillaCRT, is a food and nutrition communications and consulting firm that is boldly transforming the way the world thinks about food, nutrition and health. With offices in Chicago, Washington, DC and San Francisco, FoodMinds expertly navigates science, public affairs, consumer values and communications to create breakthrough strategies and help clients tell a better story. The firm has more than 40 employees, including 15 registered dietitians and a PhD, along with a global network of nearly 30 nutrition affairs experts. Over the past year, it expanded its capabilities in Strategic Insights and Issues & Crisis Navigation and continued to grow its global footprint. The winner of the 2013 Holmes Report Boutique Agency of the Year and the 2012 Gold SABRE award in the public affairs category, FoodMinds was named a finalist for PRWeek’s 2015 Small Agency of the Year award and was cited by the 2014 Holmes World PR Report as one of the 10 fastest-growing U.S. PR companies. For more information, visit http://www.foodminds.com. ###
Jeukendrup A.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute |
Jeukendrup A.,University of Birmingham
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014
There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit. A single carbohydrate source can be oxidized at rates up to approximately 60 g/h and this is the recommendation for exercise that is more prolonged (2-3 h). For ultra-endurance events, the recommendation is higher at approximately 90 g/h. Carbohydrate ingested at such high ingestion rates must be a multiple transportable carbohydrates to allow high oxidation rates and prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. The source of the carbohydrate may be a liquid, semisolid, or solid, and the recommendations may need to be adjusted downward when the absolute exercise intensity is low and thus carbohydrate oxidation rates are also low. Carbohydrate intake advice is independent of body weight as well as training status. Therefore, although these guidelines apply to most athletes, they are highly dependent on the type and duration of activity. These new guidelines may replace the generic existing guidelines for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. © The Author(s) 2014.
Jeukendrup A.E.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute |
Jeukendrup A.E.,University of Birmingham
Current Sports Medicine Reports | Year: 2013
Carbohydrates during exercise can improve exercise performance even when the exercise intensity is high (975%V̇O2max) and the duration relatively short (approximately 1 h), but the underlying mechanisms for the ergogenic effects are different from those during more prolonged exercise. Studies have even shown effects of oral carbohydrate mouth rinses compared to placebo with improvements typically between 2% and 3% during exercise lasting approximately 1 h. The effects appear more profound after an overnight fast, but effects are still present even after ingestion of a meal. Brain imaging studies have identified brain areas involved, and it is likely that the oral carbohydrate mouth rinse results in afferent signals capable of modifying motor output. These effects appear to be specific to carbohydrate and are independent of taste. Further research is warranted to fully understand the separate taste transduction pathways for various carbohydrates as well as the practical implications. © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.
Baker L.B.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute |
Jeukendrup A.E.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute |
Jeukendrup A.E.,University of Birmingham
Comprehensive Physiology | Year: 2014
The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences. © 2014 American Physiological Society.
Karelis A.D.,University of Quebec at Montréal |
Smith J.E.W.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute |
Passe D.H.,Scout Consulting LLC |
Pronnet F.,University of Montréal
Sports Medicine | Year: 2010
It is well established that carbohydrate (CHO) administration increases performance during prolonged exercise in humans and animals. The mechanism(s), which could mediate the improvement in exercise performance associated with CHO administration, however, remain(s) unclear. This review focuses on possible underlying mechanisms that could explain the increase in exercise performance observed with the administration of CHO during prolonged muscle contractions in humans and animals. The beneficial effect of CHO ingestion on performance during prolonged exercise could be due to several factors including (i) an attenuation in central fatigue; (ii) a better maintenance of CHO oxidation rates; (iii) muscle glycogen sparing; (iv) changes in muscle metabolite levels; (v) reduced exercise-induced strain; and (vi) a better maintenance of excitation-contraction coupling. In general, the literature indicates that CHO ingestion during exercise does not reduce the utilization of muscle glycogen. In addition, data from a meta-analysis suggest that a dose-dependent relationship was not shown between CHO ingestion during exercise and an increase in performance. This could support the idea that providing enough CHO to maintain CHO oxidation during exercise may not always be associated with an increase in performance. Emerging evidence from the literature shows that increasing neural drive and attenuating central fatigue may play an important role in increasing performance during exercise with CHO supplementation. In addition, CHO administration during exercise appears to provide protection from disrupted cell homeostasisintegrity, which could translate into better muscle function and an increase in performance. Finally, it appears that during prolonged exercise when the ability of metabolism to match energy demand is exceeded, adjustments seem to be made in the activity of the NaK pump. Therefore, muscle fatigue could be acting as a protective mechanism during prolonged contractions. This could be alleviated when CHO is administered resulting in the better maintenance of the electrical properties of the muscle fibre membrane. The mechanism(s) by which CHO administration increases performance during prolonged exercise is(are) complex, likely involving multiple factors acting at numerous cellular sites. In addition, due to the large variation in types of exercise, durations, intensities, feeding schedules and CHO types it is difficult to assess if the mechanism(s) that could explain the increase in performance with CHO administration during exercise is(are) similar in different situations. Experiments concerning the identification of potential mechanism(s) by which performance is increased with CHO administration during exercise will add to our understanding of the mechanism(s) of musclecentral fatigue. This knowledge could have significant implications for improving exercise performance. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.
De Oliveira E.P.,Federal University of Uberlandia |
Burini R.C.,São Paulo State University |
Jeukendrup A.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute |
Jeukendrup A.,Loughborough University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014
Gastrointestinal problems are common, especially in endurance athletes, and often impair performance or subsequent recovery. Generally, studies suggest that 30-50 % of athletes experience such complaints. Most gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise are mild and of no risk to health, but hemorrhagic gastritis, hematochezia, and ischemic bowel can present serious medical challenges. Three main causes of gastrointestinal symptoms have been identified, and these are either physiological, mechanical, or nutritional in nature. During intense exercise, and especially when hypohydrated, mesenteric blood flow is reduced; this is believed to be one of the main contributors to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms. Reduced splanchnic perfusion could result in compromised gut permeability in athletes. However, although evidence exists that this might occur, this has not yet been definitively linked to the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Nutritional training and appropriate nutrition choices can reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort during exercise by ensuring rapid gastric emptying and the absorption of water and nutrients, and by maintaining adequate perfusion of the splanchnic vasculature. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates, and potentially the use of nutrients that stimulate the production of nitric oxide in the intestine and thereby improve splanchnic perfusion. However, at this stage, evidence for beneficial effects of such interventions is lacking, and more research needs to be conducted to obtain a better understanding of the etiology of the problems and to improve the recommendations to athletes. © The Author(s) 2014.
Williams C.,Loughborough University |
Rollo I.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015
The common pattern of play in ‘team sports’ is ‘stop and go’, i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2–4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. © 2015, The Author(s).