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Jeukendrup A.E.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute | Jeukendrup A.E.,University of Birmingham
Current Sports Medicine Reports | Year: 2013

Carbohydrates during exercise can improve exercise performance even when the exercise intensity is high (975%V̇O2max) and the duration relatively short (approximately 1 h), but the underlying mechanisms for the ergogenic effects are different from those during more prolonged exercise. Studies have even shown effects of oral carbohydrate mouth rinses compared to placebo with improvements typically between 2% and 3% during exercise lasting approximately 1 h. The effects appear more profound after an overnight fast, but effects are still present even after ingestion of a meal. Brain imaging studies have identified brain areas involved, and it is likely that the oral carbohydrate mouth rinse results in afferent signals capable of modifying motor output. These effects appear to be specific to carbohydrate and are independent of taste. Further research is warranted to fully understand the separate taste transduction pathways for various carbohydrates as well as the practical implications. © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source


Jeukendrup A.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute | Jeukendrup A.,University of Birmingham
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit. A single carbohydrate source can be oxidized at rates up to approximately 60 g/h and this is the recommendation for exercise that is more prolonged (2-3 h). For ultra-endurance events, the recommendation is higher at approximately 90 g/h. Carbohydrate ingested at such high ingestion rates must be a multiple transportable carbohydrates to allow high oxidation rates and prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. The source of the carbohydrate may be a liquid, semisolid, or solid, and the recommendations may need to be adjusted downward when the absolute exercise intensity is low and thus carbohydrate oxidation rates are also low. Carbohydrate intake advice is independent of body weight as well as training status. Therefore, although these guidelines apply to most athletes, they are highly dependent on the type and duration of activity. These new guidelines may replace the generic existing guidelines for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


De Oliveira E.P.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Burini R.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Jeukendrup A.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute | Jeukendrup A.,Loughborough University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Gastrointestinal problems are common, especially in endurance athletes, and often impair performance or subsequent recovery. Generally, studies suggest that 30-50 % of athletes experience such complaints. Most gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise are mild and of no risk to health, but hemorrhagic gastritis, hematochezia, and ischemic bowel can present serious medical challenges. Three main causes of gastrointestinal symptoms have been identified, and these are either physiological, mechanical, or nutritional in nature. During intense exercise, and especially when hypohydrated, mesenteric blood flow is reduced; this is believed to be one of the main contributors to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms. Reduced splanchnic perfusion could result in compromised gut permeability in athletes. However, although evidence exists that this might occur, this has not yet been definitively linked to the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Nutritional training and appropriate nutrition choices can reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort during exercise by ensuring rapid gastric emptying and the absorption of water and nutrients, and by maintaining adequate perfusion of the splanchnic vasculature. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates, and potentially the use of nutrients that stimulate the production of nitric oxide in the intestine and thereby improve splanchnic perfusion. However, at this stage, evidence for beneficial effects of such interventions is lacking, and more research needs to be conducted to obtain a better understanding of the etiology of the problems and to improve the recommendations to athletes. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


Karelis A.D.,University of Quebec at Montreal | Smith J.E.W.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute | Passe D.H.,Scout Consulting LLC | Pronnet F.,University of Montreal
Sports Medicine | Year: 2010

It is well established that carbohydrate (CHO) administration increases performance during prolonged exercise in humans and animals. The mechanism(s), which could mediate the improvement in exercise performance associated with CHO administration, however, remain(s) unclear. This review focuses on possible underlying mechanisms that could explain the increase in exercise performance observed with the administration of CHO during prolonged muscle contractions in humans and animals. The beneficial effect of CHO ingestion on performance during prolonged exercise could be due to several factors including (i) an attenuation in central fatigue; (ii) a better maintenance of CHO oxidation rates; (iii) muscle glycogen sparing; (iv) changes in muscle metabolite levels; (v) reduced exercise-induced strain; and (vi) a better maintenance of excitation-contraction coupling. In general, the literature indicates that CHO ingestion during exercise does not reduce the utilization of muscle glycogen. In addition, data from a meta-analysis suggest that a dose-dependent relationship was not shown between CHO ingestion during exercise and an increase in performance. This could support the idea that providing enough CHO to maintain CHO oxidation during exercise may not always be associated with an increase in performance. Emerging evidence from the literature shows that increasing neural drive and attenuating central fatigue may play an important role in increasing performance during exercise with CHO supplementation. In addition, CHO administration during exercise appears to provide protection from disrupted cell homeostasisintegrity, which could translate into better muscle function and an increase in performance. Finally, it appears that during prolonged exercise when the ability of metabolism to match energy demand is exceeded, adjustments seem to be made in the activity of the NaK pump. Therefore, muscle fatigue could be acting as a protective mechanism during prolonged contractions. This could be alleviated when CHO is administered resulting in the better maintenance of the electrical properties of the muscle fibre membrane. The mechanism(s) by which CHO administration increases performance during prolonged exercise is(are) complex, likely involving multiple factors acting at numerous cellular sites. In addition, due to the large variation in types of exercise, durations, intensities, feeding schedules and CHO types it is difficult to assess if the mechanism(s) that could explain the increase in performance with CHO administration during exercise is(are) similar in different situations. Experiments concerning the identification of potential mechanism(s) by which performance is increased with CHO administration during exercise will add to our understanding of the mechanism(s) of musclecentral fatigue. This knowledge could have significant implications for improving exercise performance. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source


Williams C.,Loughborough University | Rollo I.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

The common pattern of play in ‘team sports’ is ‘stop and go’, i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2–4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

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