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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: LCE-09-2015 | Award Amount: 27.97M | Year: 2016

This proposal is an application to the EU programme Horizon 2020 and its topic Large scale energy storage (LCE-09-2015). The presented project STORE&GO will demonstrate three innovative Power to Gas storage concepts at locations in Germany, Switzerland and Italy in order to overcome technical, economic, social and legal barriers. The demonstration will pave the way for an integration of PtG storage into flexible energy supply and distribution systems with a high share of renewable energy. Using methanation processes as bridging technologies, it will demonstrate and investigate in which way these innovative PtG concepts will be able to solve the main problems of renewable energies: fluctuating production of renewable energies; consideration of renewables as suboptimal power grid infrastructure; expensive; missing storage solutions for renewable power at the local, national and European level. At the same time PtG concepts will contribute in maintaining natural gas or SNG with an existing huge European infrastructure and an already advantageous and continuously improving environmental footprint as an important primary/secondary energy carrier, which is nowadays in doubt due to geo-political reasons/conflicts. So, STORE&GO will show that new PtG concepts can bridge the gaps associated with renewable energies and security of energy supply. STORE&GO will rise the acceptance in the public for renewable energy technologies in the demonstration of bridging technologies at three living best practice locations in Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2011.3.7 | Award Amount: 52.35M | Year: 2012

ene.field will deploy up to 1,000 residential fuel cell Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) installations, across 11 key Member States. It represents a step change in the volume of fuel cell micro-CHP (micro FC-CHP) deployment in Europe and a meaningful step towards commercialisation of the technology. The programme brings together 9 mature European micro FC-CHP manufacturers into a common analysis framework to deliver trials across all of the available fuel cell CHP technologies. Fuel cell micro-CHP trials will be installed and actively monitored in dwellings across the range of European domestic heating markets, dwelling types and climatic zones, which will lead to an invaluable dataset on domestic energy consumption and micro-CHP applicability across Europe. By learning the practicalities of installing and supporting a fleet of fuel cells with real customers, ene.field partners will take the final step before they can begin commercial roll-out. An increase in volume deployment for the manufacturers involved will stimulate cost reduction of the technology by enabling a move from hand-built products towards serial production and tooling. The ene.field project also brings together over 30 utilities, housing providers and municipalities to bring the products to market and explore different business models for micro-CHP deployment. The data produced by ene.field will be used to provide a fact base for micro FC-CHP, including a definitive environmental lifecycle assessment and cost assessment on a total cost of ownership basis. To inform clear national strategies on micro-CHP within Member States, ene.field will establish the macro-economics and CO2 savings of the technologies in their target markets and make recommendations on the most appropriate policy mechanisms to support the commercialisation of domestic micro-CHP across Europe. Finally ene.field will assess the socio-economic barriers to widespread deployment of micro-CHP and disseminate clear position papers and advice for policy makers to encourage further roll out.

Giese A.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V. | Mackh R.,OSRAM | Koster B.,Hotwork International AG
GWF, Gas - Erdgas | Year: 2010

In 2006, burners based on the fl ameless oxidation principle were applied to a recuperatively heated glass melting furnace (Unit Melter) for the fi rst time. Since then, these so-called GlasFlox burners, manufactured by Hotwork International AG, have been in operation without any problems. Both, the quality of the glass which is used to produce energy saving lamps and the energy consumption remained at the same level. At the same time the NOx emissions were reduced by about 45 % by using the GlasFlox burners. Thus, the operator Osram GmbH was able to comply with the "TA Luft 2002" regulations regarding NOx emissions, mandatory since October 2009, without resorting to any secondary measures. The following contribution gives a brief overview on the design process and problems that occured. Furthermore, operational experiences gained in the last four years are presented.

Leicher J.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V. | Giese A.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V.
Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization and Simulation of Energy Conversion Systems and Processes, ECOS 2012 | Year: 2012

Melting glass is a very energy intensive process, with process temperatures of more than 1600°C required to melt the raw materials in the furnace. Such high temperatures are usually achieved by intensive air preheating and near stoichiometric conditions. This leads to a significant production of nitrous oxides (NOX). As the emissions of nitrous oxides are regulated be increasingly stringent environmental legislation, the glass industry is very interested in combustion techniques which reduce NOX emissions without resorting to expensive flue gas treatment while maintaining the glass quality. In the steel industry, the so-called flameless oxidation (FLOX) combustion concept is firmly established as a state-of-the-art primary technique to reduce NOX formation in furnaces. This technology uses high momentum jets of fuel and oxidizer to generate an intense recirculation of hot, but chemically inert flue gas into the reaction zone. By mixing flue gas into the reaction zone, its shape changes from a quasi-twodimensional flame front into a three-dimensional reaction volume. A much more homogeneous temperature distribution is obtained while the formation of hot spots can be avoided, thus significantly reducing thermal NOX emissions. The name "Flameless Oxidation" derives from the fact that no visible flame can be observed with the naked eye since the local OH concentrations are very low due to the large amounts of recirculated flue gas. Experience from the steel industry shows great promise for the introduction of this technology into other industrial sectors as a means to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. In the course of a German research project, the Gaswärme-Institut e.V. Essen (GWI) in cooperation with several industrial partners investigated how to best introduce the flameless oxidation technique to glass melting furnaces equipped with recuperative burners, so-called unit melters. A furnace of a project partner, producing glass for compact fluorescent lamps, was chosen for conversion to FLOX burners. Initially, there was some skepticism with regards to the applicability of a combustion process without a visible lame in a glass furnace, as normally, a slow, highly luminous flame is considered desirable in such furnaces. Also, the high gas velocities in the fuel and oxidizer jets carry the risk of blowing dust from the batch into the central recuperator. Thus, a careful design of both the new burner system as well as their positions in the furnace was necessary to avoid high gas velocities immediately above the glass bath. In a first step, a FLOX burner system for recuperative glass melting furnaces was developed and optimized at GWI, using CFD simulations. This prototype was then tested at GWI's semi-industrial test rig in order to verify that the new design was able to comply with the required NOX emissions limit. Compared to the burner originally mounted in the glass furnace, a reduction of almost 60 per cent was achieved. In order to reduce the downtime of the furnace to a minimum, the exchange of the burners was planned using CFD simulations. Different configurations were simulated in order determine potential problems and an optimum burner set up was found, which was subsequently implemented on the site. The retrofitted plant has been in operation for five years now still maintaining to produce the same glass quality as before the retrofit. The NOX emissions, on the other hand, were reduced by about 50 per cent. In addition the energy consumption of the process was reduced because an optimized burner positioning and more stable combustion allows for lower air ratios in the furnace, thus reducing fuel consumption.

Benthin J.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V. | Giese A.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V.
Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization and Simulation of Energy Conversion Systems and Processes, ECOS 2012 | Year: 2012

The melting of glass is a very energy-intensive process. Very high standards for the security of gas-supply and technical quality of glass melting tanks are set. Air preheating is a common method to achieve the required high melting temperatures with minimum energy consumption. Regenerative and recuperative systems can be used. Regenerative glass melting furnaces are widespread and lead to a high firing efficiency and reduced energy consumption. The resulting high local flame temperature increases NOX emissions. Conventional methods for NOx reduction in regenerative glass furnaces are pushed to their limits. On the one hand the designers, builders and operators of glass melting tank equipment like to react flexibly on the present and future situation of the gas market and ensure security of supply. On the other hand they like to improve both the efficiency of the process and the glass quality and like to reduce the pollutant emissions as well. As part of a cooperation project with its project partners IWG engineering company Wagenbauer Zwiesel, Heinz Glas GmbH Kleintettau and the Gaswärme-Institut e. V. Essen, with regard to these needs, a concept for the conversion of natural gas-fired glass melting furnaces to propane gas-fired and the associated NOX optimization was developed. The ability of the NOX reduction by exhaust gas recirculation in regeneratively fired glass furnaces has been demonstrated with great success in previous studies [1]. Within the project, several measurement campaigns were conducted at operational industrial glass melting tanks, a test tank and the experimental facilities of the GWI where temperature and species distributions were measured. The data obtained are used to validate the CFD simulation models created with the help of the gained data of propane gas-fired burners and their impact on technology, heat transfer and pollutant emissions, etc. are investigated and applied to real glass melting tanks. Initial findings have already been implemented on a small experimental tank. The design of the conversion to propane gas-firing, including the control and regulation devices represents the completion of the project.

Renewable energy sources have good credentials and are gaining a growing share of the heating market. The combination of highly effi cient condensing boilers and solar thermal systems not only reduces carbon dioxide emissions but also lowers operating expenses. Manufacturers supply comprehensive packages covering many standard cases in new or existing buildings. The planning, installation and maintenance work must also be of a high quality. It is essential to involve the user himself because only systems optimally attuned to the respective needs can guarantee high effi ciency and economic viability.

Currently natural in Germany (depending on the gas origin) contains approximately 2 % CO2. According to the DVGW guidelines G 262 (conditions 2007) [1] gases produced from renewable fuels are allowed to contain max 6 % CO2 before being fed in the gas grid. Concentrations beyond that, which are calculated from the Wobbe index in the DVGW guidelines G 260 [2] offer the possibility to arrange the processing and conditioning of fermentation gas simpler and more economical. This could result in a prospective simplifi cation for feeding fermentation gas into the natural gas grid. In order to develop the technical guidelines and guarantee a safe gas supply in face of the higher CO2-concentration in the gas grid, the Gaswärme-Institut (GWI) conducted a study to determine the maximum CO 2-concentration possible in common household gas appliances.During the experimental testing phase each gas units was subject to a cold start as well as an endurance tests with different synthetically mixed fermentation gases. The intention of this project was to determine the broad and fundamental application limitations, as well as the infl uence of gases containing CO 2 (near the Wobbe-Index limits) during the operation of these gas units. The testing results show, that each gas unit is able to combust gases with CO2 concentrations ranging from 11.3 to 14 Vol.-%, without diffi culty. Whereas gas containing 18.6 Vol.-% CO2 indicated that numerous gas units were unable to operate properly or demonstrated technical issues. In this testing series acoustic effects and unstable combustion behaviour, as well as a non existent ignition were observed. n summary it cannot be determined, that CO2 is solely responsible for these negative infl uences on the operation mode of the gas units. The deviances from the normal operation mode are also due to low Wobbe-Index values of the tested gases.

MacLean S.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V. | Tali E.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V. | Giese A.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V. | Leicher J.,Gaswarme - Institute e. V.
Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization and Simulation of Energy Conversion Systems and Processes, ECOS 2012 | Year: 2012

For both environmental and economic reasons, the use of biogas for heat and power generation (CHP), especially on a small and decentralized scale, is predicted to increase dramatically in the years to come. However, these unconventional fuel gases present new challenges to manufacturers of combustion systems as their properties differ from natural gas. In general, their calorific values (LCV) are much lower than those of natural gas, as they contain large amounts of inert species such as CO2 or N2. Also, their chemical compositions may vary significantly over time and they may contain species such as HCN or NH3, leading to increased NOx formation during combustion due to fuel-bound nitrogen. While NOx formation due to fuelbound nitrogen is common in coal combustion, NOx reduction measures for the combustion of gaseous fuels are usually aimed towards the reduction of thermal NOx formation and are thus not able to prevent the conversion of chemically bound nitrogen in biogas into nitrogen oxides. In the course of several research projects, Gaswärme-Institut e.V. Essen (GWI) investigated on how to best make use of these renewable fuels in future combustion systems. Using both numerical and experimental techniques, several burner systems were developed which can achieve a stable combustion of different types of biogases with a minimum of NOx formation. Using CFD simulations, burners based on the COSTAIR and flameless oxidation (FLOX®) principles were modified to operate with low calorific value fuel gases. The performance of these burners was then further investigated by experimental investigations in GWI's semiindustrial test rigs where a satisfactory agreement between numerical and experimental data was observed. In a further step, the COSTAIR burner was then mounted into a commercially available 100 kW micro gas turbine (MGT) and tested under real operating conditions. It was shown that the combustion system was able to operate in a stable manner while producing only a minimum of NOx-emissions, making the combination of a MGT and a burner system optimized for low calorific value gases an ideal choice for small scale decentralized combined heat and power applications.

Backed by political policies and innovations of technology Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is going to play a key role for the supply of heat and electrical power in the future. Micro CHP plants offer an efficient und alternative means to generate heat andpower for household applications due to their high fuel efficiencies. A broad range of different technologies for optimal operation in single and multi family houses are already available and currently in development. In the future micro CHP technology poses a new method to provide new and existing building infrastructures a means to supplying efficient energy with the option of integrating Smart Grids. This is one main goal of DVGW's innovation offensive "gas technology".

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