Groningen, Netherlands
Groningen, Netherlands

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Gersen S.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology | Mokhov A.V.,University of Groningen | Darmeveil J.H.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology | Levinsky H.B.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology | Levinsky H.B.,University of Groningen
Combustion and Flame | Year: 2010

Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios φ = 1.0 and φ = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC) region and, at low temperatures, two-stage ignition. At temperatures below ∼900 K, the delay times for iso-butane are longer than those for the normal isomer, while above this temperature both butanes give essentially the same results. At temperatures above ∼720 K the delay times of the lean mixtures are twice those for stoichiometric compositions; at T < 720 K, the equivalence ratio is seen to have little influence on the ignition behavior. Increasing the pressure from 15 bar to 30 bar decreases the amplitude of the NTC region, and reduces the ignition delay time for both isomers by roughly a factor of 3. In the region in which two-stage ignition is observed, 680-825 K, the duration of the first ignition stage decreases sharply in the range 680-770 K, but is essentially flat above 770 K. Good quantitative agreement is found between the measurements and calculations for n-butane using a comprehensive model for butane ignition, including both delay times in the two-stage region, with substantial differences being observed for iso-butane, particularly in the NTC region. © 2009 The Combustion Institute.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2008.5.2.2 | Award Amount: 2.42M | Year: 2009

This project aims at paving the road towards large-scale, Europe-wide infrastructure for the transport and injection of CO2 from zero-emission plants. The project will prepare for the optimum transition from initial small-scale, local initiatives towards large-scale CO2 transport and storage that is to start around 2020, with key stakeholders in the field of carbon capture, transport and storage. This transition, as well as the development of CO2 infrastructure will be studied by developing the business case in a number of realistic scenarios. The project will result in a roadmap for CO2 transport infrastructure, with 2020 as the target year for start of large-scale CCS in Europe. The roadmap will be defined for all levels considered in the project, ranging from technical to organizational, financial and societal.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SEC-2013-1.6-3 | Award Amount: 14.16M | Year: 2014

The advancement of 24/7 surveillance systems for the security of WideZones with multiple assets at localized scales is of extreme strategic relevance to European economies, industries, authorities and Citizens. Nevertheless, the cost for large deployments and maintenance of ground sensing networks for local surveillance across these WideZones is extremely high. Hence, large areas of high economic importance, particularly those situated at Member States cross-borders, may be exposed to undetected local illicit activities. These could lead to large systemic failures of the processes operating in wider zones, while economic stability, safety and security in Europe can be potentially compromised. Hence, the integration of affordable ground and airborne sensor observation technologies for the critical surveillance of large spatial areas of high economic values in Europe needs to be imminently prioritized. Secure and interoperable observation data and information management services using open standards shall be deployed in ZONeSEC with the aim of cost-effectively reusing them in the surveillance of many other European WideZones. These services are part of an advanced Knowledge Base (KB) and primarily focused on large scale surveillance with high performance detection of localized abnormal activities and alerts. Semantically enriched domain knowledge representations shall be stored in the KB for supporting high level data fusion and reasoning with reduced uncertainties and false alerts. Surveillance professionals will securely subscribe to the scalable KB services of the ZONeSEC system of systems with customisable visualization features. Several pilots specializing in the detection of illegal unauthorized entrances to or trespassing premises; or actions to damage to or deployment of harmful devices on installations shall be fully demonstrated. These concern Water, Oil and Transnational Gas Pipelines; Highways and Rail tracks conveyed in six European countries.


Buit L.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology | Ahmad M.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology | Mallon W.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology | Hage F.,Linde Gas Benelux BV
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

For carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), various specifications of the water content in CO2 have been given. These specifications range from 40 to 500 ppm. Unfortunately, little has been published on the rationale behind these concentration limits. The present lack of clarity on the dryness requirements is undesirable, because eventually, we must come to a water content standard for CCS that ensures cost-efficient CO2 transport. The work presented here aims at analyzing CO2 transport to provide some basic input for this standard. CO2 captured from power plants always contains moisture. The water can be removed to a certain extent at the capture plant, but a small amount of water will remain. When the water is in solution in the CO2, there is no problem, but free water combined with CO 2 is very acidic. The corrosive nature of wet CO2 poses a threat to the transport system integrity. Economical considerations lead to the use of regular carbon steel, which is commonly used for most pipelines. Corrosion resistant steel would inhibit corrosion, but it would be prohibitively expensive to build CCS pipelines with this type of steel. On one hand, using regular carbon steel requires corrosion tests to quantify the destructive effects of free water in case it is present in the CO2. On the other hand, the occurrence of free water must be excluded as much as possible. No free water anywhere in the CO2 transport system would be the most straightforward way of protecting it. Drying captured CO2 costs both money and energy and reduces flexibility in the CCS chain, so a water concentration limit should not be more stringent than necessary. A quick overview of the solubility of water in CO2 is given to enable a discussion of the operational limits of the CCS transport chain. For normal operation, the pressure range of dense phase CO2 in a pipeline transmission system is between 85 and 150 bars onshore and between 85 and 200 bars offshore. The lower limit is determined by the critical point of CO 2 (73,8 bars for pure CO2, somewhat different for CO 2 with impurities). A pressure of 85 bars ensures the CO2 remains in the dense phase in case of a temporary shutdown. The upper limits of 150 and 200 bars are chosen with regard to safety and economical optimization. Expected CO2 characteristics in the transport network include a minimum temperature of 0 °C (onshore) or 4 °C (offshore) and a maximum temperature of over 30 °C immediately after a compressor. This leads to a water solubility of at least 1500 ppm during normal operation. Commissioning of a CO2 pipeline and blowdown scenarios are discussed. The relation between the CO2 conditions during planned blowdowns and the water content should be investigated. Unplanned blowdown could involve a rapid decompression and temperature drop, for which there are no validated models available. Therefore it is difficult to determine the right water concentration limit. It was found that for a good technical and economical basis for determining the required water concentration limit some questions remain to be answered. Cost data of drying installations are needed. It should be found out what are acceptable blowdown conditions as a function of water concentration. Some thermodynamical issues are brought up as well. Finally the impurities present in the captured CO2 will need to be taken into account. Although in the USA, no serious problems seem to have surfaced with around 500 ppm water in CO2, several research questions need to be addressed to arrive at a sound and cost efficient water concentration limit. This work is carried out within CO2EuroPipe, an EU research project under the 7th Framework Programme. This project, which runs for 2, 5 years, until November 2011, aims at paving the road towards large-scale, Europe-wide infrastructure for the transport and injection of CO2 captured from industrial sources and low-emission power plants. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Veenstra T.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

Gasunie experiences minimal lost time accidents and serious incidents. The consequence, however, is that these very limited events generate limited data for use in in-depth analyses for preventive measures. Gasunie registers all accidents, incidents, and dangerous situation, and the record shows whether the event is a potentially serious event (PSE). To learn from unwanted or dangerous situations it is useful to analyze PSE. These are events that could have led to (more) serious consequences in just slightly different circumstances in another credible scenario. A discussion covers useful results that can be obtained from quantitative and qualitative information from this type of PSE and whether this information be used for preventive action and for generating performance indicators. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the International Gas Union Research Conference (IGRC 2014) (Copenhagen, Denmark 9/17-19/2014).


Dam A.M.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2012

In the Netherlands a 485 km (300 mi.), 48 inch diameter, high pressure (8 Mpa, 1200 PSI), natural gas pipeline is being constructed. A large part (> 15%) of the pipeline is constructed trenchless in which horizontal directional drillings (HDD) up till 1400 m (4600 feet) length are used. This way of constructing is not only demanding from a construction point of view but also set high demands on the quality and strength of the coating of the steel pipes that is used. For this task, dedicated mill and field joint coating systems were selected. Partly the selected coating systems are new in the industry. In the paper an overview is given of: • the different constructions used and the demands they deliver for the coating • the coating systems chosen, both mill and field coating • the quality checks involved • tests and results • experiences, conclusions and outlook for the future. ©2012 by NACE International.


Vermeulen U.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology
International Gas Union World Gas Conference Papers | Year: 2015

This report highlights gas energy scenarios to 2050, key technical and market developments, including global LNG, unconventional gas, gas and renewable, and gas for transport, as well as key policy developments for energy security and environmental and climate policies. This is an abstract of a paper at the 26th World Gas Conference (Paris, France 6/1-5/2015).


Hut C.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology
International Gas Union World Gas Conference Papers | Year: 2012

Liberalization in the European gas market requires transmission system operators (TSO) to be fully independent from the commercial interests of their parent companies, leading to complete unbundling of previously integrated companies into two separate entities. One of these, the trading arm, represents the company exposed to commodity risks that are high and consequently result in high margins on natural gas trading. On the other hand, regulated gas transmission is assumed to be a less risky business, and is therefore allowed lower margins by regulators. Moreover, transmission companies are put under high pressure by the regulators to lower their costs, resulting in further lower regulated tariffs. The question is whether this short-term reduction of transmission costs is the best solution in the long run, given the objective of keeping gas prices as low as possible for consumers and industries. A discussion covers the lessons learned from the transition of an integrated company into a separate transmission company within a time frame of several years - Gas Transport Services, the transmission arm of Gasunie in the Netherlands - and how unbundling has led to considerable changes in the responsibilities and the method of working for TSO. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 25th World Gas Conference (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 6/4-8/2012).


Pijnacker Hordijk A.D.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology
International Gas Union World Gas Conference Papers | Year: 2012

Gasunie operates a relatively long (11,600 km) and complex pipeline network in the Netherlands and a comparable network in Germany. Recently new projects have been initiated in order to realize a Gas Roundabout in the Netherlands, including the laying of bar pipelines and the construction of two compressor stations. LNG delivered by boat at the Gate terminal of Rotterdam is transported as gas through the western part of Holland. A discussion covers the design criteria of the latest electrical-driven compressor station in the Netherlands that would enable the dispatching center from the gas transportation department to transport gas through the Gas Roundabout towards several exit/entry points in a cross-border environment. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 25th World Gas Conference (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 6/4-8/2012).


Bekker M.,Gasunie Engineering and Technology
International Gas Union World Gas Conference Papers | Year: 2012

Managing fugitive emissions has taken an important and effective role in Gasunie's footprint reduction program. A discussion covers Gasunie's experiences with the fugitive natural gas emissions; reduction of fugitive natural gas emissions; and the results achieved by the Leak Detection And Repair program and setting up the fugitive emission management. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 25th World Gas Conference (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 6/4-8/2012).

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