Gasum OY

Espoo, Finland
Espoo, Finland
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Kohla T.,Aalto University | Laukkanena T.,Aalto University | Tuomaalaa M.,Aalto University | Niskanenb T.,Gasum OY | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2013 | Year: 2013

Fossil fuels applied in energy generation-, transport- and refinery processes can be replaced by biofuels. This offers plenty processing options for biomass resources such as thermo-chemical. For process evaluation different criteria is applied, usually including costs, energy efficiency and CO2 emission. However, comparative evaluation of the energy efficiency is difficult since no general standard method exists. The objective of this paper is to compare different methods of energy efficiency and CO2 emission assessment in order to systematically analyse their differences qualitatively and quantitatively. The methods include a general engineering approach, CO2 assessment according to the EU's Renewable Energy Sources Directive, primary energy efficiency analysis (incl. CO2 assessment) and exergy analysis. In this paper the methods are compared, based on a case study of Bio-SNG generation from woody biomass (simulated with Aspen+). The work shows the differences of the methods when applied to the same process allowing critical discussions of the methods applicability and providing a starting point for the future work on developing novel energy efficiency and CO2 emission assessment methods.

Riikonen A.,Gasum Oy | Pihlainen I.,Pöyry
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

This paper analyses LNG properties of the world LNG market and compares them with European pipeline gases. The target is to analyse which LNG qualities can be regasificated and fed directly to the natural gas pipeline network without any processing. The target is also to find LNG qualities that can be used as ferry and ship fuel.

Suomalainen M.S.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Arasto A.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Teir S.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Siitonen S.,Gasum Oy
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013

This paper describes modifications to improve the feasibility of a pre-combustion CCS concept for a gas turbine combined cycle. A natural gas-fired greenfield combined heat and power (CHP) plant equipped with pre-combustion capture was used as a base case, for which various improvement options were identified, assessed and selected. The base case was modified using the selected improvement options, after which the investment costs were re-evaluated. The results showed that the investment cost can be reduced with 8 % by excluding the pre-reformer and the low temperature water-gas-shift reactor from the reforming process. The exclusion of the pre-reformer did not affect the performance of the plant, but the exclusion of the low temperature water-gas-shift reactor led to higher CO2 emissions.

Kohl T.,Aalto University | Laukkanen T.,Aalto University | Tuomaala M.,Aalto University | Niskanen T.,Gasum OY | And 3 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2014

The goal of biofuel production is to partially replace fossil fuels in energy generation and transport. For the evaluation of biofuel production processes different criteria are applied and usually they include costs, efficiency aspects and emissions. However, evaluation of the energy efficiency of biofuels production is difficult since no general standard method exists for that. This paper compares three different assessment methods of energy efficiency both qualitatively and quantitatively. The methods are: thermal efficiency, exergy analysis and primary energy analysis. The feasibility of the methods is tested on a Bio-SNG (synthetic natural gas) production process which was modelled in AspenPlus and MS Excel. The results show that the exergy analysis seems to be advantageous when it comes to detailed (sub-) process analysis whereas the primary energy analysis offers the advantage of showing how the system is influencing the global primary energy resources. The results obtained by the thermal efficiency analysis do not add any new information to the results obtained by exergy and primary energy analyses. Exergy and primary energy analyses should be the preferred means for process assessment. Especially a combination of the two methods could offer the chance to develop a more holistic energy efficiency indicator. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Manninen K.,Finnish Environment Institute | Koskela S.,Finnish Environment Institute | Tuomaala M.,Gasum Oy | Siitonen S.,Gasum Oy | Mattila T.,Gasum Oy
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

IMO defines Baltic Sea as one of the emission control areas in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. It includes the stringent targets on airborne emissions such as SOx and NOx. Therefore, the continuation of ship traffic in the Baltic Sea requires modifications to ships or renewal of fleet. To reach the targets, one of the options is to outfit ships with more environmental friendly LNG fueled engines. According to Det Norske Veritas, LNG fueled ship reduces SOx and particles by close to 100% and the emission of NOx by 85-90% compared to today's conventional fuel. LNG fueled ships will come with 15-20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental impacts of LNG and heavy fuel oil (HFO) operated ships using a passenger ferry as an example are compared. The potential change in emissions of Finnish sea traffic in the Baltic Sea if ships will transfer to use LNG instead of oil is estimated. The fuel production emissions compared to end use emissions are significantly lower for emissions of CO2, NOx, and SOx. However, the case-specific examination for the production route of LNG and HFO is always recommended to do. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the International Gas Union Research Conference (Copenhagen, Denmark 9/17-19/2014).

Siitonen S.,Gasum Oy | Pirhonen L.,AF Consult Oy
International Gas Union World Gas Conference Papers | Year: 2012

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of our time, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) is expected to play a significant role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions worldwide and abating climate change. This study analyses how the integration of pre-combustion carbon capture technology in the gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant affects the efficiency, power-to-heat ratio, CO2 emissions and costs of the power plant. The study shows that carbon capture reduces the efficiency of the combined cycle gas turbine power plant by 11 %-points. Same time, the power-to-heat ratio increases due to the fact that carbon capture reduces heat production of the plant more than electricity production. The investment in greenfield gas turbine combined cycle CHP power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture technology would not be a reasonable investment with the current prices of electricity, heat, and emission allowances.

Manninen K.,Finnish Environment Institute | Koskela S.,Finnish Environment Institute | Nuppunen A.,Gasum Oy | Sorvari J.,Finnish Environment Institute | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Biogas production processes are often multifunctional systems, which also produce fertilizers from digested sludge. The environmental impacts of such systems are usually determined using life cycle assessment (LCA). There are alternative approaches to conduct the LCA, e.g., allocation of emissions based on a product's and co-product's energy content according to the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), or substitution without allocation according to the ISO 14040 standard. We calculated the climate change impacts of biogas production using these two alternative methods, whilst also considering process modifications of the base case biogas production process. The aim was to find out whether the production system achieves the saving targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions set by the RED. Since the RED enables different interpretations of its calculation rules, we created four case studies representing alternative ways to allocate the emissions to the reject water and solid fractions separated from the sludge. Consequently, our emission estimates for the base case vary between 16.9 and 47.7g CO2/MJ, while the emission savings range from 42% to 80%. Most of the case studies achieved the most stringent saving target (60%). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Holmberg H.,Aalto University | Siitonen S.,Gasum Oy | Laukkanen T.,Aalto University | Tuomaala M.,Gasum Oy | Niskanen T.,Gasum Oy
Energy Procedia | Year: 2015

The European Union's goal is to increase the share of renewable energy sources to 20 per cent and that of liquid biofuels for transport to at least 10 per cent by 2020. Liquid biofuels for transport are, for example, biodiesel and bioethanol. Their use is not assumed to increase CO2-emissions in the atmosphere. However, production processes of transport fuels need energy causing indirect CO2-emissions. To evaluate the environmental burden of these biofuels it is important to consider indirect CO2-emissions in analyses, too. This study defines indirect CO2-emissions for Digestion process, Bioethanol process, FT-process (Fischer-Tropsch-process) and Bio-SNG-process and compares their environmental burden. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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