Lee H.Y.,CHA Medical University |
Lee H.Y.,Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory |
Crawley S.,Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory |
Hokari R.,Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory |
And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2010
MUC2 is a major secretory mucin normally expressed by goblet cells of the intestine, but is aberrantly expressed in colonic neoplasia. Bile acids have been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis and, therefore, we sought to determine the effects of bile acids on MUC2 expression and regulation in colon cancer cells. Since deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid, has been reported to be a potent mucin secretagogue and tumor promoter, DCA-treated HM3 colon cancer cells were analyzed using promoter-reporter assays of the 5′ flanking region of the MUC2 gene. Chemical inhibitors, mutant reporter constructs and EMSA showed that DCA upregulates MUC2 transcription via multiple pathways involving activation of EGFR/PKC/Ras/Raf-1/MEK1/ERK/CREB, PI3/Akt/IκB/NF-κB and p38/MSK1/CREB while DCA induced MUC2 transcription is inhibited by JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. These results provide new insight into the complex molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of mucin gene by bile acids in colon cancer cells that may contribute to further elucidation of colorectal carcinogenesis.
Kakar S.,University of California at San Francisco |
Kakar S.,Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory |
Deng G.,Gastrointestinal Research Laboratory |
Smyrk T.C.,Mayo Medical School |
And 3 more authors.
Modern Pathology | Year: 2012
The relationship of molecular abnormalities with clinicopathologic features and survival in colorectal signet ring cell carcinoma, and its comparison with mucinous and conventional adenocarcinomas, has not been well studied. High-level microsatellite instability, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at four loci, CpG island methylation phenotype based on seven loci, BRAF V600E mutation and KRAS mutation in signet ring cell carcinoma were compared with mucinous and conventional adenocarcinomas. The relationship of these molecular features in signet ring cell carcinoma with clinicopathologic features and survival was examined. LOH was observed in 93% of signet ring cell carcinomas compared with 62 and 70% of mucinous and conventional adenocarcinomas. Also, 80% of signet ring cell carcinomas with high-level microsatellite instability showed LOH compared with 14% each of mucinous and conventional adenocarcinomas. High-level microsatellite instability, CpG island methylation phenotype-positive status and BRAF V600E mutation were more often seen in signet ring cell carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma compared with conventional adenocarcinoma. BRAF V600E mutation was significantly associated with CpG island methylation phenotype-positive status. Stage and BRAF V600E mutation in microsatellite- stable cases were the only variables with an affect on survival. In conclusion, chromosomal instability manifested by LOH is nearly a universal finding in signet ring cell carcinoma, including cases with high-level microsatellite instability. This may explain the aggressive behavior of signet ring cell carcinoma irrespective of high-level microsatellite-instability status. BRAF V600E mutation and CpG island methylation phenotype-positive status are similar in signet ring cell carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma but more frequent when compared with conventional adenocarcinoma. In signet ring cell carcinoma, BRAF V600E mutation adversely affects survival in microsatellite-stable tumors, but not in high-level microsatellite-unstable tumors. The high frequency of methylation and BRAF V600E mutation suggests that many signet ring cell carcinomas may be related to the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis. © 2012 USCAP, Inc. All rights reserved.