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Goebel-Stengel M.,Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Hofmann T.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Elbelt U.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Teuffel P.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 5 more authors.

Ghrelin is the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting peptide hormone stimulating food intake. The acylation of ghrelin is essential for binding to its receptor. Recently, the ghrelin activating enzyme ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) was identified in mice, rats and humans. In addition to gastric mucosal expression, GOAT was also detected in the circulation of rodents and its expression was dependent on metabolic status. We investigated whether GOAT is also present in human plasma and whether expression levels are affected under different conditions of body weight. Normal weight, anorexic and obese subjects with body mass index (BMI) 30-40, 40-50 and >50 were recruited (n = 9/group). In overnight fasted subjects GOAT protein expression was assessed by Western blot and ghrelin measured by ELISA. GOAT protein was detectable in human plasma. Anorexic patients showed reduced GOAT protein levels (-42%, p < 0.01) whereas obese patients with BMI > 50 had increased concentrations (+34%) compared to normal weight controls. Ghrelin levels were higher in anorexic patients compared to all other groups (+62-78%, p < 0.001). Plasma GOAT protein expression showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with ghrelin (r = -0.60, p < 0.001). Summarized, GOAT is also present in human plasma and GOAT protein levels depend on the metabolic environment with decreased levels in anorexic and increased levels in morbidly obese patients. These data may indicate that GOAT counteracts the adaptive changes of ghrelin observed under these conditions and ultimately contributes to the development or maintenance of anorexia and obesity as it is the only enzyme acylating ghrelin. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Stengel A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Hofmann T.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Goebel-Stengel M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Lembke V.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 6 more authors.
Histochemistry and Cell Biology

The orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic peptide nesfatin-1 are expressed by the same endocrine cell of the rat stomach, the X/A-like cell. However, data in humans are lacking, especially under conditions of obesity. We collected gastric tissue of obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy and investigated the expression of nesfatin-1 and ghrelin in the gastric oxyntic mucosa by immunofluorescence. Nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity was detected in the human oxyntic mucosa in cells with an endocrine phenotype. A major portion of nesfatin-1 immunoreactive cells (78 %) co-localized with ghrelin indicating the occurrence in human X/A-like cells. In patients with very high body mass index (BMI 55-65 kg/m2), the number of nesfatin-1 immunoreactive cells/low-power field was significantly higher than in obese patients with lower BMI (40-50 kg/m2, 118 ± 10 vs. 82 ± 11, p < 0.05). On the other hand, the number of ghrelin immunoreactive cells was significantly reduced in obese patients with higher compared to lower BMI (96 ± 12 vs. 204 ± 21, p < 0.01). Also the ghrelin-acylating enzyme ghrelin-O-acyltransferase decreased with increasing BMI. In conclusion, nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity is also co-localized with ghrelin in human gastric X/A-like cells giving rise to a dual role of this cell type with differential effects on stimulation and inhibition of appetite dependent on the peptide released. The expression of these two peptides is differentially regulated under obese conditions with an increase of nesfatin-1 and a decrease of ghrelin immunoreactivity with rising BMI pointing towards an adaptive change of expression that may counteract further body weight increase. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Stengel A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Goebel-Stengel M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Wang L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Shaikh A.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Abdominal surgery inhibits circulating acyl ghrelin and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase levels in rats: role of the somatostatin receptor subtype 2. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 301: G239-G248, 2011. First published June 2, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00018.2011.-Clinical studies are evaluating the efficacy of synthetic ghrelin agonists in postoperative ileus management. However, the control of ghrelin secretion under conditions of postoperative gastric ileus is largely unknown. Peripheral somatostatin inhibits ghrelin secretion in animals and humans. We investigated the time course of ghrelin changes postsurgery in fasted rats and whether somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) signaling is involved. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy and 1-min cecal palpation) induced a rapid and long-lasting decrease in plasma acyl ghrelin levels as shown by the 64, 67, and 59% reduction at 0.5, 2, and 5 h postsurgery, respectively, compared with sham (anesthesia alone for 10 min, P < 0.05). Levels were partly recovered at 7 h and fully restored at 24 h. The percentage of acyl ghrelin reduction was significantly higher than that of desacyl ghrelin at 2 h postsurgery and not at any other time point. This was associated with a 48 and 23% decrease in gastric and plasma ghrelin-O-acyltransferase protein concentrations, respectively (P < 0.001). Ghrelin-positive cells in the oxyntic mucosa expressed sst2a receptor and the sst2 agonist S-346-011 inhibited fasting acyl ghrelin levels by 64 and 77% at 0.5 and 2 h, respectively. The sst2 antagonist S-406-028 prevented the abdominal surgery-induced decreased circulating acyl ghrelin but not the delayed gastric emptying assessed 0.5 h postinjection. These data show that activation of sst2 receptor located on gastric X/A-like cells plays a key role in the rapid inhibition of circulating acyl ghrelin induced by abdominal surgery while not being primarily involved in the early phase of postoperative gastric ileus. © 2011 the American Physiological Society. Source

Stengel A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Stengel A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Goebel-Stengel M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Jawien J.,Gastrointestinal Endocrinology | And 3 more authors.

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an established animal model to study the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacteria mimicking symptoms of infection including reduction of food intake. LPS decreases acyl ghrelin associated with decreased concentrations of circulating ghrelin-O- acyltransferase (GOAT) likely contributing to the anorexigenic effect. We also recently described the prominent expression of the novel anorexigenic hormone, nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 in gastric X/A-like cells co-localized with ghrelin in different pools of vesicles. To investigate whether LPS would affect gastric and circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 concentration, ad libitum fed rats were equipped with an intravenous (iv) catheter. LPS was injected intraperitoneally (ip, 100 μg/kg) and blood was withdrawn before and at 2, 5, 7 and 24 h post injection and processed for NUCB2/nesfatin-1 radioimmunoassay. Gastric corpus was collected to measure NUCB2 mRNA expression by RT-qPCR and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 protein concentration by Western blot. Injection of LPS increased plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 concentrations by 43%, 78% and 62% compared to vehicle at 2 h, 5 h and 7 h post injection respectively (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline at 24 h. The plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increase at 2 h was associated with increased corpus NUCB2 mRNA expression (p < 0.01), whereas NUCB2 mRNA was not detectable in white blood cells. Likewise, gastric NUCB2 protein concentration was increased by 62% after LPS compared to vehicle (p < 0.01). These data show that gastric NUCB2 production and release are increased in response to LPS. These changes are opposite to those of ghrelin in response to LPS supporting a differential gastric regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and ghrelin expression derived from the same cell by immune challenge. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Stengel A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Goebel M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Wang L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Reeve Jr. J.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 2 more authors.

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rodents is an established model for studying innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria and mimicking symptoms of infections including reduced food intake associated with decreased circulating total ghrelin levels. The ghrelin-acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) involved in the formation of acyl ghrelin (AG) was recently identified. We investigated changes in circulating AG, desacyl ghrelin (DG) and GOAT induced by intraperitoneal LPS (100 μg/kg) and associated changes in food intake. Plasma AG and total ghrelin were assessed by radioimmunoassay, GOAT protein by Western blot and mRNA by RT-qPCR. DG was derived from total minus AG. Plasma AG and DG were decreased at 2, 5 and 7 h (p < 0.01) post-injection compared to vehicle and recovered at 24 h. At 2 h there was a significantly greater decrease of AG (-53%) than DG (-28%) resulting in a decreased AG/DG ratio (1:5, p < 0.01), which thereafter returned to pre-injection values (1:3). This altered ratio was associated with a 38% decrease in plasma GOAT protein compared to vehicle (p < 0.001), whereas gastric GOAT protein was slightly increased by 10% (p < 0.05). GOAT mRNA expression was unchanged. Food intake was reduced by 58% measured during the 1.5-2 h period post-LPS injection. Decreased plasma AG and DG preceded the rise in rectal temperature and blood glucose that peaked at 7 h. These data indicate that LPS induces a long-lasting reduction of AG and DG levels that may have a bearing with the decrease in food intake. The faster drop in AG than DG within 2 h is associated with reduced circulating GOAT. Source

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