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Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service | Elisei W.,ASL RMH | Picchio M.,P Colombo Hospital | Brandimarte G.,Cristo Re Hospital
International Journal of Colorectal Disease | Year: 2014

Background and aims: Colonic diverticulitis shows a high recurrence rate, but the role of faecal markers in predicting recurrence is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of faecal calprotectin (FC) in predicting recurrence of diverticulitis. Patients/methods: A prospective cohort study was performed on 54 patients suffering from acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD) diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT). After remission, patients underwent to clinical follow-up every 2 months. After remission and during the follow-up, FC was analysed. Recurrence of diverticulitis was defined as return to our observation due to left lower-quadrant pain with or without other symptoms (e.g. fever), associated with leucocytosis and/or increased C-reactive protein (CRP). Presence of diverticulitis was confirmed by means of CT. Results/findings: The mean follow-up was 20 months (range 12-24 months). Forty-eight patients were available for the final evaluation, and six patients were lost to follow-up. During follow-up, increased FC was detected in 17 (35.4 %) patients and diverticulitis recurred in eight patients (16.7 %). Diverticulitis recurred in eight (16.7 %) patients: seven (87.5 %) patients showed increased FC during the follow-up, and only one (12.5 %) patient with recurrent diverticulitis did not show increased FC. Diverticulitis recurrence was strictly related to the presence of abnormal FC test during follow-up. Conclusions: In the present prospective study, increased FC was found to be predictive of diverticulitis recurrence. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service | Papa A.,Columbus University | Danese S.,IBD Unit | Danese S.,IBD Center
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Background The incidence of diverticulosis and diverticular disease of the colon, including diverticulitis, is increasing worldwide, and becoming a significant burden on national health systems. Treatment of patients with diverticulosis and DD is generally based on high-fibre diet and antibiotics, respectively. However, new pathophysiological knowledge suggests that further treatment may be useful. Aim To review the current treatment of diverticulosis and diverticular disease. Methods A search of PubMed and Medline databases was performed to identify articles relevant to the management of diverticulosis and diverticular disease. Major international conferences were also reviewed. Results Two randomised controlled trials (RCT) found the role of antibiotics in managing acute diverticulitis to be questionable, particularly in patients with no complicating comorbidities. One RCT found mesalazine to be effective in preventing acute diverticulitis in patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. The role of rifaximin or mesalazine in preventing diverticulitis recurrence, based on the results of 1 and 4 RCTs, respectively, remains unclear. RCTs found rifaximin and mesalazine to be effective in treating symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. The use of probiotics in diverticular disease and in preventing acute diverticulitis occurrence/recurrence appears promising but unconclusive. Finally, the role of fibre in treating diverticulosis remains unclear. Conclusions Available evidence suggests that antibiotics have a role only in the treatment of complicated diverticulitis. It appears to be some evidence for a role for rifaximin and mesalazine in treating symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. Finally, there is not currently adequate evidence to recommend any medical treatment for the prevention of diverticulitis recurrence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service | Elisei W.,ASL RMH | Brandimarte G.,Cristo Re Hospital | Giorgetti G.M.,S Eugenio Hospital | Aiello F.,University of Palermo
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Background: Acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD) may show histologic and serologic signs of inflammation. Goals: To assess whether serologic markers of inflammation may be predictive of abnormal histology in AUD. Study: Twenty-one consecutive patients affected by AUD were studied (15 Males, 6 Females, mean age 66.19 y, range 43 to 85 y). Diagnosis of AUD was based on specific endoscopic and CT scan patterns. Several serologic markers were assessed [White blood cells (WBC), Erytro-sedimentation Rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, α1-acid glycoprotein]. Neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was also scored. Results: WBC was increased in 4/21 pts (19.4%), Erytro-sedimentation Rate in 12/21 pts (57.14%), CRP in 13/21 pts (61.9%), fibrinogen in 5/21 pts (23.8%), and α1-acid glycoprotein in 6/21 pts (28.57%). All serologic markers were related with the degree of histologic damage. In patients scoring 3 in neutrophilic infiltrate (severe active inflammation), all markers showed a statistical significant relation (ranging from P=0.004 for WBC to P=0.00001 for fibrinogen). CRP was the most sensitive marker of mild-moderate histologic damage, as it was increased in 4/10 (40%) patients scoring 0 or 1 in neutrophilic infiltrate (absence of mild active inflammation) (P=0.005). Conclusions: Serologic markers showed a strict relation with the degree of histologic damage in AUD. Moreover, CRP is the most sensitive marker of mild-moderate histologic damage. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service | Joseph R.E.,Shire Inc | Streck P.,Shire Inc
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2011

Diverticular disease is a common bowel condition, the pathogenesis of which is incompletely understood. Acute exacerbations of diverticular disease usually require dietary changes, antibiotic therapy, and may necessitate urgent surgery. Approximately 25-33% of patients experience symptomatic and acute inflammatory disease recurrence, suggesting that current long-term management is inadequate. Because inflammatory complications of diverticular disease, including diverticulitis, are similarities to inflammatory bowel diseases, evidence suggests that patients may respond to anti-inflammatory therapies used in these conditions. Here, we explore the rationale and evidence for use of inflammatory bowel disease treatment, namely 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; mesalamine), in diverticular disease, and review clinical data on the efficacy of mesalamine either alone or in combination with other agents for the treatment of diverticular disease. PubMed and conference abstracts were searched for clinical studies examining the use of mesalamine in treating diverticular disease. Studies were evaluated for treatment efficacy in symptom reduction, recurrence prevention, or improving quality of life. The results of our search suggest that single-agent mesalamine can reduce diverticular disease symptoms and improve quality of life more effectively than antibiotic treatment alone. Mesalamine in combination with antibiotics can also reduce symptoms and improve quality of life with greater efficacy than either treatment alone. Combining mesalamine and probiotics treatments may reduce recurrent attacks of diverticular disease. Further randomized, well-controlled studies are required for validation; however, it seems that mesalamine is an important agent in future diverticular disease management. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Elisei W.,ASL Rome H | Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service
Annals of Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

The incidence of diverticulosis and diverticular disease of the colon is increasing worldwide. Although the majority of patients remains asymptomatic long-life, the prevalence of diverticular disease of the colon, including acute diverticulitis, is substantial and is becoming a significant burden on National Health Systems in terms of direct and indirect costs. Focus is now being drawn on identifying the correct therapeutic approach by testing various treatments. Fiber, non-absorbable antibiotics and probiotics seem to be effective in treating symptomatic and uncomplicated patients, and 5-aminosalicylic acid might help prevent acute diverticulitis. Unfortunately, robust evidence on the effectiveness of a medical strategy to prevent acute diverticulitis recurrence is still lacking. We herein provide a concise review on the effectiveness and future perspectives of these treatments. © 2016 Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology.


Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Diverticulosis of the colon is a widespread disease, and its prevalence is increasing especially in the developing world. The underlying pathological mechanisms that cause the formation of colonic diverticula remain unclear but are likely to be the result of complex interactions among age, diet, genetic factors, colonic motility, and changes in colonic structure. The large majority of patients remain asymptomatic throughout their life, one fifth of them become symptomatic (developing the so-called 'diverticular disease') while only a minority of these will develop acute diverticulitis. The factors predicting the development of symptoms remain to be identified. Again, it is generally recognized that diverticular disease occurrence is probably related to complex interactions among colonic motility, diet, lifestyle, and genetic features. Changes in intestinal microflora due to low-fiber diet and consequent low-grade inflammation are thought to be one of the mechanisms responsible for symptoms occurrence of both diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. Current therapeutic approaches with rifaximin and mesalazine to treat the symptoms seem to be promising. Antibiotic treatment is currently advised only in acute complicated diverticulitis, and no treatment has currently proven effective in preventing the recurrence of acute diverticulitis. Further studies are required in order to clarify the reasons why diverticulosis occurs and the factors triggering occurrence of symptoms. Moreover, the reasons why rifaximin and mesalazine work in symptomatic diverticular disease but not in acute diverticulitis are yet to be elucidated. © SAGE Publications.


Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease | Year: 2013

Acute diverticulitis of the colon represents a significant burden for national health systems, in terms of direct and indirect costs. Past guidelines claimed that recurrent episodes (two or more) of diverticulitis need surgery, but revised guidelines recommend an individualized approach to patients after an attack of acute diverticulitis. For these reasons, conservative treatment has become the preferred choice after an episode of diverticulitis. Thus, significant efforts are now being focused to identify the correct therapeutic approach to prevent diverticulitis relapses. Nonabsorbable antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylic acid and probiotics are currently being investigated in this way. The effectiveness and the future perspectives of these treatments are discussed herein. © The Author(s), 2013.


Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: Diverticular disease (DD) of the colon is a widespread disease, which shows worldwide increasing incidence and represents a significant burden for National Health Systems. The current guidelines claim that symptomatic uncomplicated DD (SUDD) has to be treated with spasmolithics and high-fiber diet, whereas both uncomplicated and complicated acute diverticulitis has to be treated with antibiotics. However, new physiopathological knowledge suggests that further treatment may be promising. Areas covered: Pathogenetic and treatment studies on SUDD and acute diverticulitis published in PubMed, www.clinicaltrials.gov, and in the main International Congress were reviewed. Expert opinion: Although absorbable antibiotics and 5-aminosalycilic acid seem to be effective in treating SUDD, their role in preventing diverticulitis recurrence is still under debate. Antibiotic use in managing acute diverticulitis is at least questionable, and use of probiotics seems to be promising but need further robust studies to confirm the preliminary results. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Moawad F.J.,Gastroenterology Service | Appleman H.D.,University of Michigan
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2016

Sloughing esophagitis, also currently known as esophagitis dissecans superficialis, is a degenerative disease of the squamous epithelium characterized by superficial epithelial necrosis with parakeratosis, but without inflammation, and detachment of the superficial necrotic zone from the deep viable zone. This leads to a spectacular endoscopic appearance of sloughed mucosa in streaks and patches. The cause is unknown, and the clinical characteristics are variable, ranging from incidentally findings to esophageal symptoms. The disease seems to be self-limited, as resolution of the changes was observed in the few cases for which follow-up endoscopic examinations have been reported. © 2016 The New York Academy of Sciences.


Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety | Year: 2014

Acute diverticulitis of the colon represents a significant burden for national health systems, in terms of direct and indirect costs. Although current guidelines recommend use of antibiotics for the outpatient treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, evidence for this is still lacking. Hence, significant effort is now being made to identify the appropriate therapeutic approach to treat and prevent relapses of diverticulitis. Outpatient treatment has been identified as a safe and effective therapeutic approach in up to 90% of patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis. It allows important costs saving to health systems without a negative influence on quality of life for patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis, and reduces health care costs by more than 60%. © 2014 Tursi.

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