Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology | Year: 2016
Diverticulosis of the colon is a widespread disease, and its prevalence is increasing especially in the developing world. The underlying pathological mechanisms that cause the formation of colonic diverticula remain unclear but are likely to be the result of complex interactions among age, diet, genetic factors, colonic motility, and changes in colonic structure. The large majority of patients remain asymptomatic throughout their life, one fifth of them become symptomatic (developing the so-called 'diverticular disease') while only a minority of these will develop acute diverticulitis. The factors predicting the development of symptoms remain to be identified. Again, it is generally recognized that diverticular disease occurrence is probably related to complex interactions among colonic motility, diet, lifestyle, and genetic features. Changes in intestinal microflora due to low-fiber diet and consequent low-grade inflammation are thought to be one of the mechanisms responsible for symptoms occurrence of both diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. Current therapeutic approaches with rifaximin and mesalazine to treat the symptoms seem to be promising. Antibiotic treatment is currently advised only in acute complicated diverticulitis, and no treatment has currently proven effective in preventing the recurrence of acute diverticulitis. Further studies are required in order to clarify the reasons why diverticulosis occurs and the factors triggering occurrence of symptoms. Moreover, the reasons why rifaximin and mesalazine work in symptomatic diverticular disease but not in acute diverticulitis are yet to be elucidated. © SAGE Publications.
Prokunina-Olsson L.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Muchmore B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Tang W.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
Pfeiffer R.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute |
And 21 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer. We performed RNA sequencing in primary human hepatocytes activated with synthetic double-stranded RNA to mimic HCV infection. Upstream of IFNL3 (IL28B) on chromosome 19q13.13, we discovered a new transiently induced region that harbors a dinucleotide variant ss469415590 (TT or ΔG), which is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs12979860, a genetic marker strongly associated with HCV clearance. ss469415590[ΔG] is a frameshift variant that creates a novel gene, designated IFNL4, encoding the interferon-λ4 protein (IFNL4), which is moderately similar to IFNL3. Compared to rs12979860, ss469415590 is more strongly associated with HCV clearance in individuals of African ancestry, although it provides comparable information in Europeans and Asians. Transient overexpression of IFNL4 in a hepatoma cell line induced STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic regulation of HCV clearance and its clinical management. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service |
Elisei W.,ASL RMH |
Picchio M.,P. Colombo Hospital |
Brandimarte G.,Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit
International Journal of Colorectal Disease | Year: 2014
Background and aims: Colonic diverticulitis shows a high recurrence rate, but the role of faecal markers in predicting recurrence is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of faecal calprotectin (FC) in predicting recurrence of diverticulitis. Patients/methods: A prospective cohort study was performed on 54 patients suffering from acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (AUD) diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT). After remission, patients underwent to clinical follow-up every 2 months. After remission and during the follow-up, FC was analysed. Recurrence of diverticulitis was defined as return to our observation due to left lower-quadrant pain with or without other symptoms (e.g. fever), associated with leucocytosis and/or increased C-reactive protein (CRP). Presence of diverticulitis was confirmed by means of CT. Results/findings: The mean follow-up was 20 months (range 12-24 months). Forty-eight patients were available for the final evaluation, and six patients were lost to follow-up. During follow-up, increased FC was detected in 17 (35.4 %) patients and diverticulitis recurred in eight patients (16.7 %). Diverticulitis recurred in eight (16.7 %) patients: seven (87.5 %) patients showed increased FC during the follow-up, and only one (12.5 %) patient with recurrent diverticulitis did not show increased FC. Diverticulitis recurrence was strictly related to the presence of abnormal FC test during follow-up. Conclusions: In the present prospective study, increased FC was found to be predictive of diverticulitis recurrence. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.
Tursi A.,Gastroenterology Service
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety | Year: 2014
Acute diverticulitis of the colon represents a significant burden for national health systems, in terms of direct and indirect costs. Although current guidelines recommend use of antibiotics for the outpatient treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, evidence for this is still lacking. Hence, significant effort is now being made to identify the appropriate therapeutic approach to treat and prevent relapses of diverticulitis. Outpatient treatment has been identified as a safe and effective therapeutic approach in up to 90% of patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis. It allows important costs saving to health systems without a negative influence on quality of life for patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis, and reduces health care costs by more than 60%. © 2014 Tursi.
Moawad F.J.,Gastroenterology Service |
Appleman H.D.,University of Michigan
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2016
Sloughing esophagitis, also currently known as esophagitis dissecans superficialis, is a degenerative disease of the squamous epithelium characterized by superficial epithelial necrosis with parakeratosis, but without inflammation, and detachment of the superficial necrotic zone from the deep viable zone. This leads to a spectacular endoscopic appearance of sloughed mucosa in streaks and patches. The cause is unknown, and the clinical characteristics are variable, ranging from incidentally findings to esophageal symptoms. The disease seems to be self-limited, as resolution of the changes was observed in the few cases for which follow-up endoscopic examinations have been reported. © 2016 The New York Academy of Sciences.