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Regensburg, Germany

Pox C.P.,Ruhr University Bochum | Altenhofen L.,Central Research Institute of Ambulatory Health Care in Germany | Brenner H.,German Cancer Research Center | Theilmeier A.,Gastroenterology practice | And 2 more authors.

Background & Aims: Screening colonoscopy examinations for colorectal cancer are offered in the United States and some European countries. Data on results and adverse effects of screening colonoscopy are limited. In autumn 2002, colonoscopy was introduced as part of a nationwide cancer screening program in Germany; it was offered to the general population for individuals 55 years of age or older. We collected and analyzed data from this program. Methods: We performed a prospective cross-sectional study, collecting results from 2,821,392 screening colonoscopies performed at more than 2100 practices by highly qualified endoscopists in Germany from January 2003 to December 2008. Data on participation, colorectal adenoma and cancer detection, and complications were collected using standardized documentation forms. The data generated were centrally processed and evaluated. Results: The cumulative participation rate was 17.2% of eligible women and 15.5% of eligible men 55-74 years old. The adenoma detection rate (ADR) was 19.4%, with a higher rate in men (25.8% vs 16.7% in women). Advanced adenomas were found in 6.4% of patients. Carcinomas were detected in 25,893 subjects (0.9%); most were of an early UICC stage (I, 47.3%; II, 22.3%; III, 20.7%; IV, 9.6%). The ADRs for gastroenterologists and nongastroenterologists were 25.1% and 22.3%, respectively (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.21). The overall complication rate was 2.8/1000 colonoscopies, and the rate of serious complications was 0.58/1000 colonoscopies. Conclusions: A nationwide colonoscopy screening program that uses highly qualified endoscopists can detect a significant number of adenomas and early-stage carcinomas. The ADR for gastroenterologists was higher than for nongastroenterologists. © 2012 AGA Institute. Source

Brenner H.,German Cancer Research Center | Hoffmeister M.,German Cancer Research Center | Birkner B.,Gastroenterology practice | Stock C.,German Cancer Research Center | Stock C.,University of Heidelberg
American Journal of Gastroenterology

OBJECTIVES: Randomized trials have shown that annual or biannual screening by guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBTs) reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. Few clinical studies have evaluated diagnostic performance of gFOBT through validation by colonoscopy in all participants. We aimed for a comprehensive evaluation of diagnostic performance of gFOBT by age and sex under routine screening conditions. METHODS: Our analysis is based on 20,884 colonoscopies following up a positive gFOBT and 182,956 primary screening colonoscopies documented in a state-wide quality assurance program in Bavaria, Germany, in 2007-2009. Positive likelihood ratios (LR+), which represent an integrative measure of diagnostic performance, were derived, by age groups (55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74 years) and sex, from a joint and comparative analysis of prevalences of colorectal neoplasms in both groups. RESULTS: Overall LR+ (95% confidence intervals) were 1.11 (1.06-1.15), 1.80 (1.72-1.88), and 5.04 (4.64-5.47) for non-advanced adenoma, advanced adenoma, and cancer, respectively. Assuming a specificity of gFOBT of 95.2%, as recently observed in a German study among 2,235 participants of screening colonoscopy, these LR+ would translate to sensitivities of 5.3%, 8.6%, and 24.2% for the three outcomes, respectively. Diagnostic performance was similarly poor among women and men and across age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of gFOBT under routine screening conditions is even worse than previously estimated from clinical studies. In routine screening application, gFOBTs are expected to miss more than 9 out of 10 advanced adenomas and 3 out of 4 cancers. These results underline the need and the potential for better noninvasive CRC screening tests. © 2014 by the American College of Gastroenterology. Source

Brenner H.,German Cancer Research Center | Hoffmeister M.,German Cancer Research Center | Birkner B.,Gastroenterology practice | Stock C.,German Cancer Research Center | Stock C.,University of Heidelberg
International Journal of Cancer

Guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBTs) are the most commonly applied tests for colorectal cancer screening globally but have relatively poor sensitivity to detect colorectal neoplasms. Men have higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than women. In case of a positive gFOBT result, participants are referred to colonoscopy, independent of sex. To assess performance of gFOBT in routine screening practice, we assessed age and sex specific prevalences (age groups: 55-59, 60-64, 65-69 and 70-74) of colorectal neoplasms in 182,956 women and men undergoing colonoscopy for primary screening and in 20,884 women and men undergoing colonoscopy to follow-up a positive gFOBT in Bavaria, Germany, in 2007-2009. We conducted model calculations to estimate prevalences among gFOBT negative individuals. Analogous model calculations were performed for women and men tested positive or negative with fecal immunochemical tests. In all age groups (55-59, 60-64, 65-69 and 70-74 years), men undergoing colonoscopy for primary screening had substantially higher prevalences of any colorectal neoplasms and essentially the same prevalences of advanced colorectal neoplasms compared to women undergoing colonoscopy to follow-up a positive gFOBT. Model calculations suggest that men with negative gFOBT likewise have substantially higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than gFOBT positive women in each age group. Model calculations further indicate that no such sex paradoxon occurs, and a much clearer risk stratification can be achieved with fecal immunochemical tests. Our findings underline need to move forward from and overcome shortcomings of gFOBT-based colorectal cancer screening. What's new? Guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) is widely used for colorectal cancer screening and has been linked to reductions in incidence and mortality from the disease. This study shows, however, that men with negative test results have higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than women with positive test results. The analysis was based on model calculations to estimate prevalences among gFOBT negative individuals. The study underlines the need for the development of more informative tests in colorectal cancer screening. © 2013 UICC. Source

Stock C.,German Cancer Research Center | Hoffmeister M.,German Cancer Research Center | Birkner B.,Gastroenterology practice | Brenner H.,German Cancer Research Center

Background and study aims: After screening colonoscopy, additional colonoscopies may be required for adenoma surveillance or diagnostic reasons. The aim of the present study was to explore their utilization and findings in routine practice. Patients and methods: The study comprised an historical cohort of individuals participating in colonoscopy screening in 2006. Utilization and yield of neoplasms of additional colonoscopies performed in these individuals by the same physician (< 6 months and 6 - 36 months after screening) between 2006 and 2009 were assessed using data of a colonoscopy quality assurance program in Bavaria, Germany. Screening including polypectomy, and short-term follow-up colonoscopy was assumed to have been completed within ≤ 6 months. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of additional colonoscopy and advanced neoplasms (high risk adenoma or colorectal cancer [CRC]) among those with additional colonoscopy during the period of 6 - 36 months after screening. Results: A total of 51 301 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy were included. Of these, 10.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 9.8 % - 10.3 %) had an additional colonoscopy performed by the same physician between 6 and 36 months after screening. The percentages of those with additional colonoscopy were 5.7 % (95 %CI 5.5 % - 5.9 %), 18.6 % (95 %CI 17.8 % - 19.4 %), and 33.7 % (95 %CI 32.2 % - 35.2 %) after negative screening, low risk adenoma at screening, and high risk adenoma at screening, respectively. The overall findings were negative colonoscopy, low risk adenoma, high risk adenoma, and CRC in 68.6 % (95 %CI 67.3 % - 69.8 %), 24.1 % (95 %CI 23.0 % - 25.3 %), 6.7 % (95 %CI 6.0 % - 7.4 %), and 0.6 % (95 %CI 0.4 % - 0.8 %), respectively. Younger age, male sex, screen-detected adenomas, inflammatory bowel disease, and early repeat colonoscopy within 6 months were predictors of additional colonoscopy. Older age, male sex, screen-detected adenomas, and surveillance indications were associated with increased risk of advanced neoplasms at post-screening colonoscopy. Conclusion: The results indicate frequent utilization of additional colonoscopies along with substantial adenoma yield in the first 3 years after screening colonoscopy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York. Source

Raithel M.,Universitatsklinikum | Weidenhiller M.,Gastroenterology practice | Hagel A.F.-K.,Universitatsklinikum | Hetterich U.,University Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Deutsches Arzteblatt International

Background: Adverse food reactions (AFR) have has recently attracted increased attention from the media and are now more commonly reported by patients. Its classification, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment are complex and present a considerable challenge in clinical practice. Non-immune-mediated types of food intolerance have a cumulative prevalence of 30% to 40%, while true (immune-mediated) food allergies affect only 2% to 5% of the German population. Methods: We selectively searched the literature for pertinent publications on carbohydrate malabsorption, with special attention to published guidelines and position papers. Results: Carbohydrate intolerance can be the result of a rare, systemic metabolic defect (e.g., fructose intolerance, with a prevalence of 1 in 25 000 persons) or of gastrointestinal carbohydrate malabsorption. The malabsorption of simple carbohydrates is the most common type of non-immune-mediated food intolerance, affecting 20% to 30% of the European population. This condition is caused either by deficient digestion of lactose or by malabsorption of fructose and/or sorbitol. Half of all cases of gastrointestinal carbohydrate intolerance have nonspecific manifestations, with a differential diagnosis including irritable bowel syndrome, intolerance reactions, chronic infections, bacterial overgrowth, drug side effects, and other diseases. The diagnostic evaluation includes a nutritional history, an H2 breath test, ultrasonography, endoscopy, and stool culture. Conclusion: The goals of treatment for carbohydrate malabsorption are to eliminate the intake of the responsible carbohydrate substance or reduce it to a tolerable amount and to assure the physiological nutritional composition of the patient's diet. In parallel with these goals, the patient should receive extensive information about the condition, and any underlying disease should be adequately treated. © 2013, Deutscher Arzte-Verlag GmbH. All rights reserved. Source

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