Rex D.K.,Indiana University |
Adler S.N.,Digestive Diseases Institute |
Aisenberg J.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine |
Burch W.C.,Franklin Gastroenterology PLLC |
And 18 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2015
Background & Aims Capsule colonoscopy is a minimally invasive imaging method. We measured the accuracy of this technology in detecting polyps 6 mm or larger in an average-risk screening population. Methods In a prospective study, asymptomatic subjects (n = 884) underwent capsule colonoscopy followed by conventional colonoscopy (the reference) several weeks later, with an endoscopist blinded to capsule results, at 10 centers in the United States and 6 centers in Israel from June 2011 through April 2012. An unblinded colonoscopy was performed on subjects found to have lesions 6 mm or larger by capsule but not conventional colonoscopy. Results Among the 884 subjects enrolled, 695 (79%) were included in the analysis of capsule performance for all polyps. There were 77 exclusions (9%) for inadequate cleansing and whole-colon capsule transit time fewer than 40 minutes, 45 exclusions (5%) before capsule ingestion, 15 exclusions (2%) after ingestion and before colonoscopy, and 15 exclusions (2%) for site termination. Capsule colonoscopy identified subjects with 1 or more polyps 6 mm or larger with 81% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 77%-84%) and 93% specificity (95% CI, 91%-95%), and polyps 10 mm or larger with 80% sensitivity (95% CI, 74%-86%) and 97% specificity (95% CI, 96%-98%). Capsule colonoscopy identified subjects with 1 or more conventional adenomas 6 mm or larger with 88% sensitivity (95% CI, 82%-93) and 82% specificity (95% CI, 80%-83%), and 10 mm or larger with 92% sensitivity (95% CI, 82%-97%) and 95% specificity (95% CI, 94%-95%). Sessile serrated polyps and hyperplastic polyps accounted for 26% and 37%, respectively, of false-negative findings from capsule analyses. Conclusions In an average-risk screening population, technically adequate capsule colonoscopy identified individuals with 1 or more conventional adenomas 6 mm or larger with 88% sensitivity and 82% specificity. Capsule performance seems adequate for patients who cannot undergo colonoscopy or who had incomplete colonoscopies. Additional studies are needed to improve capsule detection of serrated lesions. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01372878. © 2015 AGA Institute.
Malnick S.D.H.,Kaplan Medical Center |
Melzer E.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Attali M.,Kaplan Medical Center |
Duek G.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Yahav J.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative spiral bacterium that is present in nearly half the world's population. It is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and a recognized cause of gastric carcinoma. In addition, it is linked to non-ulcer dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency, iron-deficient anemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. These conditions are indications for testing and treatment according to current guidelines. An additional indication according to the guidelines is "anyone with a fear of gastric cancer" which results in nearly every infected person being eligible for eradication treatment. There may be beneficial effects of H. pylori in humans, including protection from gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, universal treatment will be extremely expensive (more than $32 billion in the United States), may expose the patients to adverse effects such as anaphylaxis and Clostridium difficile infection, as well as contributing to antibiotic resistance. There may also be an as yet uncertain effect on the fecal microbiome. There is a need for robust clinical data to assist in decision-making regarding treatment of H. pylori infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
Shirin H.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Shirin H.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center |
Sharvit E.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center |
Aeed H.,The lfson Medical Center |
And 4 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013
AIM: To examine whether the administration of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin would prevent experimentallyinduced hepatic cirrhosis in rats. METHODS: Liver cirrhosis was induced by injections of thioacetamide (TAA). Rats were treated concurrently with TAA alone or TAA and either atorvastatin (1,10 and 20 mg/kg) or rosuvastatin (1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) given daily by nasogastric gavage. RESULTS: Liver fibrosis and hepatic hydroxyproline content, in the TAA-treated group was significantly higher than those of the controls [11.5 ± 3.2 vs 2.6 ± 0.6 mg/g protein (P = 0.02)]. There were no differences in serum aminotransferase levels in the TAA controls compared to all the groups treated concomitantly by statins. Both statins used in our study did not prevent liver fibrosis or reduce portal hypertension, and had no effect on hepatic oxidative stress. Accordingly, the hepatic level of malondialdehyde was not lower in those groups treated by TAA + statins compared to TAA only. In vitro studies, using the BrdU method have shown that atorvastatin had no effect of hepatic stellate cells proliferation. Nevertheless, statin treatment was not associated with worsening of liver damage, portal hypertension or survival rate. CONCLUSION: Atorvastatin or rosuvastatin did not inhibit TAA-induced liver cirrhosis or oxidative stress in rats. Whether statins may have therapeutic applications in hepatic fibrosis due to other etiologies deserve further investigation. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
Harrell L.,University of Chicago |
Wang Y.,University of Chicago |
Antonopoulos D.,University of Chicago |
Young V.,University of Michigan |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Background & Aims: Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects. Methods: Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and library cloning and sequencing. Results: Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level. Conclusion: Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota. © 2012 Harrell et al.
Malnick S.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Duek G.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Melzer E.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Basevitz A.,Gastroenterology Institute
Current Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012
Autoimmune hepatitis is an immune-mediated disease targeting hepatocytes. It is more common in middle-aged Caucasian females, although may affect other patient populations and age groups. The diagnosis is made according to criteria based on the alkaline phosphatase: ALT ratio, IgG, the presence of autoantibodies, liver histology, response to therapy, and the absence of a viral, alcohol or drug etiology. More recently a simplified scoring system has been proposed. In the absence of treatment, the prognosis is very poor with a 60% three year mortality. There are guidelines on the indications for treatment and some groups of patients may not require treatment. The main element of treatment is prednisolone which decreases the 3 year mortality to 10%. Prednisolone is tapered down to 5-10 mg per day, as monotherapy or in combination with azathioprine. Approximately 80% of patients will respond to therapy with prednisolone with or without azathioprine and this should be given for at least 2 years. Remission is defined as an asymptomatic patient with serum aminotransferases that are normal or less than two-fold elevated, a normal level of IgG and inactive liver histology. Relapse occurs in up to 90% of patients following drug withdrawal. The sensitivity and specificity of liver histology to predict relapse off treatment is not high. Other treatments that have been proposed include mycophenolate mofetil, budesonide, cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, 6-MP, methotrexate, ursodeoxycholic acid, rapamycin and rituximab although experience with all these agents is limited. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
Gitlin L.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Borody T.J.,Center for Digestive Diseases |
Chamberlin W.,Texas Tech University |
Campbell J.,Center for Digestive Diseases
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2012
The relation of Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis (MAP) to Crohn's Disease (CD) and other MAP-associated conditions remains controversial. New data, coupled with the analogous Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) story, has permitted us to piece together the MAP puzzle and move forward with a more scientific way of treating inflammatory bowel disease, particularly CD. As infection moves centre stage in inflammatory bowel disease, the dated "aberrant reaction" etiology has lost scientific credibility. Now, our growing understanding of MAP-associated diseases demands review and articulation. We focus here on (1) the concept of MAP-associated diseases; (2) causality, Johne Disease, the "aberrant reaction" hypothesis; and (3) responses to published misconceptions questioning MAP as a pathogen in CD. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Hu S.,University of Chicago |
Wang Y.,University of Chicago |
Lichtenstein L.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Tao Y.,University of Chicago |
And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology | Year: 2010
Cytoprotective heat shock proteins (Hsps) are critical for intestinal homeostasis and are known to be decreased in inflammatory bowel diseases. Signals responsible for maintenance of Hsp expression are incompletely understood. In this study, we find that Hsp25/27 and Hsp70 protein expressions are differentially regulated along the longitudinal length of the large intestine, being highest in the proximal colon and decreasing to the distal colon. This longitudinal gradient was similar in both conventionally colonized mouse colon as well as biopsies of human proximal and distal colon but was abolished in the colon of germ-free mice, suggesting a role of intestinal microbiota in the Hsp regional expression. Correspondingly, analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of bacteria from each colonic segment indicated increased bacterial richness and diversity in the proximal colon. The mechanism of regulation is transcriptional, as Hsp70 mRNA followed a similar pattern to Hsp70 protein expression. Lysates of mucosa-associated bacteria from the proximal colon stimulated greater Hsp25 and Hsp70 mRNA transcription and subsequent protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells than did lysates from distal colon. In addition, transrectal administration of cecal contents stimulated Hsp25 and Hsp70 expression in the distal colon. Thus host-microbial interactions resulting in differential Hsp expression may have significant implications for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and possibly for development of inflammatory diseases of the bowel. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.
Mizrahi M.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Almogy G.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Adar T.,Gastroenterology Institute |
Lysy J.,Gastroenterology Institute
BMC Gastroenterology | Year: 2011
Background: Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID®continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2ratio in exhaled air.Case presentation: We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID®continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test.Conclusions: Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome. © 2011 Mizrahi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
PubMed | Gastroenterology Institute, U.S. National Institutes of Health and The Institute of Tissue Diagnostics and Cancer Research
Type: | Journal: Human pathology | Year: 2016
We report a case of intestinal indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (TCLPD) occurring after the initiation of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) inhibitor therapy for resistant Crohns disease. A prominent T-cell infiltrate positive for CD8, TIA-1, and T-cell receptor-F1 was associated with the foci of active inflammation. T-cell receptor gene clonality studies (BIOMED-2) demonstrated monoclonality. After the TNF- inhibitor treatment was withdrawn, the T-cell infiltrates regressed, but 2 years later, the same monoclonal T-cell infiltrate reappeared at the only site of active inflammation. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to show a link between active inflammation and the TCLPD. In addition, it suggests a possible influence of the TNF- inhibitor treatment on the evolution of the TCLPD. A high degree of suspicion is required in the presence of any unusual lymphoid infiltrate in inflammatory bowel disease to avoid overlooking an indolent TCLPD or misdiagnose an aggressive lymphoma.
PubMed | Gastroenterology Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: World journal of hepatology | Year: 2016
To evaluate the bidirectional association between metabolic syndrome (MS) components and antiviral treatment response for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.This retrospective cohort study included 119 HCV + patients treated with pegylated-interferon- and ribavirin. Metabolic characteristics and laboratory data were collected from medical records. Differences in baseline clinical and demographic risk factors between responders and non-responders were assessed using independent samples Of the 119 patients, 80 (67%) developed SVR over the average 54 13 mo follow-up. The cumulative risks for SVR was associated with lower