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Ymittos Athens, Greece

Selgrad M.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Bornschein J.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Rokkas T.,Gastroenterology Clinic | Malfertheiner P.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Helicobacter | Year: 2010

Gastric cancer still represents a global health care burden, and in the absence of strategies implemented for early detection, the disease continues to have a dismal prognosis. Patients presenting with clinical manifestations of gastric cancer have limited options for cure. Thus, early detection and prevention play a key role in the fight against gastric cancer. Serologic-based test methods have the potential to detect a subset of patients at high risk of gastric cancer that require a close clinical and endoscopic follow-up. More data have been produced to support Helicobacter pylori eradication as an efficient strategy to prevent gastric cancer. Treatment options for patients with an advanced disease are still limited, but the introduction of new agents opens a more optimistic perspective for the future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bornschein J.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Rokkas T.,Gastroenterology Clinic | Selgrad M.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Malfertheiner P.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Helicobacter | Year: 2011

The validity and usefulness of the 7th edition of the UICC tumor node metastasis classification in the context of clinical management of gastric cancer are discussed. The most relevant new agent in gastric cancer therapy is trastuzumab for HER2-positive gastric carcinomas. This marks the success of continuous effort of translational research. Trastuzumab, initially applied in palliative settings, is currently being evaluated also in neoadjuvant treatment regimens. Several new meta-analyses support the carcinogenic effect of high salt intake and smoking in the context of Helicobacter pylori infection. Further data have become available on the efficacy of protective agents, acetyl salicylic acid/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antioxidants. In search for a successful prevention strategy, the focus is on the identification of individuals at high risk who demand screening (testing) and surveillance. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal abnormalities with increased risk for gastric cancer development is extensively studied, and new data are presented from Asia as well as from Europe. New high-throughput techniques combined with bioinformatic vector analysis open the gate to the identification of new potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Furthermore, these approaches allow us to elucidate the interplay of bacterial virulence factors and the host's immune response as well as H. pylori-associated alterations of mucosal gene expression. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Selgrad M.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Bornschein J.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Rokkas T.,Gastroenterology Clinic | Malfertheiner P.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Helicobacter | Year: 2012

The greatest challenge Helicobacter pylori-related diseases continues to remaprevention of gastric cancer. New evidence supports the beneficial effect of H. pylori eradication not only on prevention of gastric cancer but also on the regression of preneoplastic conditions of the gastric mucosa. Concerning early detection of gastric cancer there are still no adequate means and there is urgent need to define appropriate markers, for example, by genome-wide research approaches. Currently, the best available method is the "serologic" biopsy based on pepsinogen I and the pepsinogen I/II ratio for identification of patients with severe gastric atrophy at increased risk for gastric cancer development. The treatment of early gastric cancer by endoscopic techniques can be performed safely and efficiently, but patients need meticulous follow-up for detection of metachronous lesions. case of advanced disease, laparoscopically assisted surgical procedures are safe and favorable compared to open surgery. Two phase III trials support the role of adjuvant systemic treatment with different regimens. Unfortunately, there is still only slow progress the development of palliative treatment regimens or modification of the existing therapy protocols. There is accumulating evidence for a role of H. pylori infection also colorectal carcinogenesis. Seropositive individuals are at higher risk for the development of colorectal adenomas and consequently adenocarcinomas of this anatomical region. This phenomenon can partly be attributed to the increase of serum gastras response to atrophic changes of the gastric mucosa. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rokkas T.,Gastroenterology Clinic | Niv Y.,Tel Aviv University
European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is an attractive and patient friendly tool that provides high quality images of the small bowel. The reported yield of VCE in diagnosing celiac disease (CD) has shown variable results. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of VCE by pooling data of existing trials. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. The fixed-effects or random-effects model was used as appropriate, based on whether homogeneity or heterogeneity, respectively, was indicated by the Cochran Q-test. PATIENTS: Studies that estimated the accuracy of VCE were identified. The two investigators independently conducted the search and data extraction. A total of 166 individuals were included in this meta-analysis. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed and studies that estimated the accuracy of VCE in CD were identified. The two investigators independently conducted the search and data extraction. Data from the eligible studies were collected and pooled; sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratios were computed. In addition, the results of the individual studies were displayed in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) space to illustrate the distribution of sensitivities and specificities. A weighted symmetric summary ROC curve was computed and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated, with perfect tests having an AUC of 1 and poor tests having an AUC close to 0.5. Results: Out of 461 titles initially generated by the literature searches, six studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for meta-analysis. The overall pooled VCE sensitivity was 89% [95% confidence interval (82-94%)] and specificity was 95% [95% confidence interval (89-98%)]. The AUC under the weighted symmetric summary ROC was 0.9584. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis mean that VCE, although it is not as accurate as pathology, could be a reasonable alternative method of diagnosing CD. Hopefully, this method will expand the portfolio of diagnostic methods available, especially in patients unwilling to undergo gastroscopy because of its perceived inconvenience and discomfort. However, larger, multicenter, and well-designed trials are needed to further establish the role of VCE in the diagnosis of CD. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Villa E.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Fattovich G.,Gastroenterology Clinic
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2010

COMMENTARY ON:. Clearance of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a cohort Chronically Infected with Hepatitis B Virus. Simonetti J, Bulkow L, McMahon BJ, Homan C, Snowball M, Negus S, Williams J, Livingston SE. Hepatology. 2009 Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print]. Copyright 2009. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Abstract: Some individuals who are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) eventually lose hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been demonstrated to occur in a few patients after loss of HBsAg. Neither factors associated with loss of HBsAg nor the incidence of HCC thereafter have been clearly elucidated. We performed a prospective population-based cohort study in 1271 Alaska native persons with chronic HBV infection followed for an average of 19.6 years to determine factors associated with loss of HBsAg and risk of developing HCC thereafter. HBsAg loss occurred in 158 persons for a rate of HBsAg clearance of 0.7%/year. Older age, but not sex, was associated with clearance of HBsAg, and loss of HBsAg was not associated with any particular HBV genotypes (A-D, and F) found in this population. Participants were followed for an average of 108.9 months after HBsAg loss. Six patients, two with cirrhosis and four without, developed HCC a mean of 7.3 years after HBsAg clearance (range, 2.0-15.5 years). The incidence of HCC after clearance of HBsAg was 36.8 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 13.5-80.0) which was significantly lower than the rate in those who remained HBsAg-positive (195.7 cases per 100,000 person-years of follow-up [95% CI 141.1-264.5; P < 0.001). After loss of HBsAg, HBV DNA was detected in the sera of 28 (18%) of those who cleared a median of 3.6 years after clearance. Conclusion: HCC can occur in persons with chronic hepatitis B who have lost HBsAg, even in the absence of cirrhosis. These persons should still be followed with periodic liver ultrasound to detect HCC early. © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver.

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