Sun Q.,Gastroenterology and Infectious Disease |
Sun Q.,University of Heidelberg |
Sattayakhom A.,Gastroenterology and Infectious Disease |
Sattayakhom A.,Mahidol University |
And 3 more authors.
Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012
It has recently emerged that the myogenic contribution of the epithelial mesenchymal transition plays a role in neoplastic invasion and metastasis. Myocyte enhancing factor 2B (MEF2B) is the only MEF2 isoform expressed during early embryonic development, and is herein proposed to transactivate the downstream target proteins of the epithelial myofibroblast transition (EMyT). We have previously generated eight preneoplastic cell lines with spindle and cobblestone morphology from human gingival mucosal keratinocytes immortalized by E6/E7 of human papillomavirus type 16. Spindle cells formed tubulogenic morphogenesis on Matrigel and exhibited contractility, anchorage-independent growth and invasiveness to a greater extent than cobblestone cells. Expression of MEF2B mRNA and myofibroblast proteins was higher in spindle cells compared with cobblestone cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment of cobblestone cells also induced expression of these genes. Knockdown of MEF2B in a cobblestone cell line abolished EGF-induced upregulation of MEF2, vimentin and non-muscle caldesmon proteins, but enhanced basal expression of mesenchymal vimentin and fibronectin. Differential regulation of intermediate filaments revealed an unrecognized role of MEF2B in myogenic transformation of the epithelial to a myofibroblast phenotype, which occurs as epithelioid variants in some soft tissue sarcomas. © 2012 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.
Seessle J.,Gastroenterology and Infectious Disease |
Liebisch G.,University of Regensburg |
Schmitz G.,University of Regensburg |
Stremmel W.,Gastroenterology and Infectious Disease |
Chamulitrat W.,Gastroenterology and Infectious Disease
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2015
Fatty acid transport protein (FATP) 4 is a minor FATP in the liver but it has some activity towards palmitate 16:0 (Pal). We here chose FATP4 as a representative model enzyme for acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), and FATPs to determine whether Pal activation would lead to apoptosis and alteration in lipid metabolism. By using FATP4 overexpressed (FATP4) Huh-7 cells, we showed that FATP4 was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria of FATP4 cells. FATP4 cells were more responsive to Pal than the control GFP cells in increasing palmitoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA activities as well as apoptosis by ∼ 2-3 folds. The lipoapoptosis susceptibility by FATP4 was coupled with the increased JNK, PUMA, caspase3, PARP-1 activation as well as Rac-1-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, and decreased insulin sensitivity. This was associated with increased contents of neutral lipids and significant alteration in composition of phospholipids and sphingolipids including increased lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), ceramide, and hexosylceramide, as well as an increase of saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in LPC and PC, but a decrease of this ratio in phosphatidylethanolamine pool. By use of ceramide synthase inhibitors, our results showed that FATP4-sensitized lipoapoptosis was not mediated by ceramides. Moreover, FATP4 expression was increased in fatty livers in vivo. Thus, our model system has provided a clue that Pal activation FATP4 triggers hepatocellular apoptosis via altered phospholipid composition and steatosis by acylation into complex lipids. This may be a redundant mechanism for other ER-localizing ACSs and FATPs in the liver, and hence their involvement in the development of fatty liver disease. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.