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Mozgovoy A.,Gas Und Warme Institute Essen E V | Burmeister F.,Gas Und Warme Institute Essen E V | Albus R.,Gas Und Warme Institute Essen E V
Energy Procedia | Year: 2015

This paper provides an overview of challenges which are being faced by the German industry, especially by its gas sector. It focuses on the feasibility of the use of liquefied natural gas (further referred to as LNG) in the German natural gas networks in order to substitute natural gas from some sources being depleted. The paper highlights technical requirements which must be matched to allow the injection of LNG into the German natural gas networks. Technical efforts to prepare LNG from different sources are calculated and shown below. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Leicher J.,Gas Und Warme Institute Essen E V | Giese A.,Gas Und Warme Institute Essen E V
IFRF Combustion Journal | Year: 2014

Melting glass requires a lot of energy, which means that process temperatures of 1600 °C and more are necessary in a glass melting furnace, depending on glass quality. In conventional plants, these high temperatures are usually obtained by the combustion of natural gas with strongly pre-heated air. Air pre-heat temperatures may reach up to 1400 °C in regenerator furnaces which, in combination with near-stoichiometric combustion in the furnace, often lead to high emissions of nitrous oxides (NOx). The glass industry is therefore very much interested in technologies which reduce NOx formation in the furnace itself, as secondary measures to filter NOx from the flue gas are expensive. Oxy-fuel is one possible approach to achieve this: air is substituted by almost pure oxygen as the oxidizer, thus providing high flame temperatures while eliminating the main source of nitrogen in the system. This is different from oxy-fuel combustion in power plants where the main focus is to facilitate CCS by replacing combustion air with a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen. There are many oxy-fuel glass melting furnaces already in operation, but most of these are based on conventional air-fired furnace designs. In the course of a recent research project, Gas- und Wärme-Institut Essen e. V. (GWI) investigated the use of oxy-fuel combustion in such furnaces in order to provide improved design criteria for purpose-built oxy-fuel glass melting furnaces by both experimental and numerical means. The comparison of the simulation and measurement results shows, however, that many combustion models commonly used in CFD codes seem to be unable to adequately describe oxy-fuel combustion. Only a numerically expensive EDC approach yields a reasonable agreement with the experiments, though at a significantly increased numerical effort. Further research is necessary to provide a means with which oxy-fuel combustion processes can be modelled accurately at reasonable numerical cost. © International Flame Research Foundation, 2014.


Mozgovoy A.,Gas Und Warme Institute Essen E V | Burmeister F.,Gas Und Warme Institute Essen E V | Albus R.,Gas Und Warme Institute Essen E V
International Gas Research Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

The challenges for the future of German gas supply, which allows taking into account two possible approaches, which might guarantee a further sustainable and secure operation of gas networks and utilization units, is discussed. These are a classic gas market conversion and a conversion of the natural gas itself. The first one is the gas market conversion which means an elevation of actual amounts of the high calorific gas (H-gas) imports from Russia and Norway via pipelines and providing them into the L-gas networks. The second approach to be taken into account is the conversion of the natural gas itself due to the ballasting of the H-gas by injection of air or pure nitrogen into the natural gas stream and thereby lowering its Wobbe number to the L-gas' requirements. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the International Gas Union Research Conference (Copenhagen, Denmark 9/17-19/2014).

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