The Garvan Institute of Medical Research was founded in 1963 by the Sisters of Charity. Initially a research department of St Vincent's Hospital in Sydney, it is now one of Australia's largest medical research institutions with approximately 650 scientists, students and support staff. The current director is Prof John Mattick.Garvan's research is focused on the major diseases that affect today's society: cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease; as well as eating disorders, and autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. It specialises in genetic and molecular technologies, and emphasises collaborative research.In 2014 the Institute became one of only three organisations in the world – and the only one outside the United States – able to sequence the human genome at a base cost below $US1,000 each when it purchased the next generation of genome sequencing equipment, which is capable of sequencing 350 genomes a week . Wikipedia.
Samaras K.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2012
Treatment of HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) confers survival and quality of life benefits. However, these significant benefits are at the cost of metabolic complications with associated increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These chronic diseases add complexity to the standards of care in HIV infection and much remains unknown about the natural histories of diabetes and hyperlipidemia in this setting. This review examines recent research findings in diabetes and hyperlipidemia in HIV infection, juxtaposed on our prior understanding of these diseases. It also reviews the current evidence base and clinical guidelines for diabetes and lipid management and cardiometabolic prevention in HIV-infected HAART recipients. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Morris K.V.,University of New South Wales |
Morris K.V.,Scripps Research Institute |
Mattick J.S.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research |
Mattick J.S.,University of New South Wales
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2014
Discoveries over the past decade portend a paradigm shift in molecular biology. Evidence suggests that RNA is not only functional as a messenger between DNA and protein but also involved in the regulation of genome organization and gene expression, which is increasingly elaborate in complex organisms. Regulatory RNA seems to operate at many levels; in particular, it plays an important part in the epigenetic processes that control differentiation and development. These discoveries suggest a central role for RNA in human evolution and ontogeny. Here, we review the emergence of the previously unsuspected world of regulatory RNA from a historical perspective. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Barry G.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Regulatory RNA is emerging as the major architect of cognitive evolution and innovation in the mammalian brain. While the protein machinery has remained largely constant throughout animal evolution, the non protein-coding transcriptome has expanded considerably to provide essential and widespread cellular regulation, partly through directing generic protein function. Both long (long non-coding RNA) and small non-coding RNAs (for example, microRNA) have been demonstrated to be essential for brain development and higher cognitive abilities, and to be involved in psychiatric disease. Long non-coding RNAs, highly expressed in the brain and expanded in mammalian genomes, provide tissue- and activity-specific epigenetic and transcriptional regulation, partly through functional control of evolutionary conserved effector small RNA activity. However, increased cognitive sophistication has likely introduced concomitant psychiatric vulnerabilities, predisposing to conditions such as autism and schizophrenia, and cooperation between regulatory and effector RNAs may underlie neural complexity and concomitant fragility in the human brain. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Vissel B.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research
Acta neuropathologica communications | Year: 2014
The amyloid hypothesis has driven drug development strategies for Alzheimer's disease for over 20 years. We review why accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers is generally considered causal for synaptic loss and neurodegeneration in AD. We elaborate on and update arguments for and against the amyloid hypothesis with new data and interpretations, and consider why the amyloid hypothesis may be failing therapeutically. We note several unresolved issues in the field including the presence of Aβ deposition in cognitively normal individuals, the weak correlation between plaque load and cognition, questions regarding the biochemical nature, presence and role of Aβ oligomeric assemblies in vivo, the bias of pre-clinical AD models toward the amyloid hypothesis and the poorly explained pathological heterogeneity and comorbidities associated with AD. We also illustrate how extensive data cited in support of the amyloid hypothesis, including genetic links to disease, can be interpreted independently of a role for Aβ in AD. We conclude it is essential to expand our view of pathogenesis beyond Aβ and tau pathology and suggest several future directions for AD research, which we argue will be critical to understanding AD pathogenesis.
Cannons J.L.,Human Genome Research Institutes |
Tangye S.G.,Garvan Institute of Medical Research |
Schwartzberg P.L.,Human Genome Research Institutes
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2011
The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein, SAP, was first identified as the protein affected in most cases of X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection, lymphoproliferative syndromes, and dysgammaglobulinemia. SAP consists almost entirely of a single SH2 protein domain that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of SLAM and related receptors, including 2B4, Ly108, CD84, Ly9, and potentially CRACC. SLAM family members are now recognized as important immunomodulatory receptors with roles in cytotoxicity, humoral immunity, autoimmunity, cell survival, lymphocyte development, and cell adhesion. In this review, we cover recent findings on the roles of SLAM family receptors and the SAP family of adaptors, with a focus on their regulation of the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of XLP and other immune disorders. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.