Bundenbach, Germany
Bundenbach, Germany

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Raabe S.,Gartenstrasse 11 | Muller J.,Bavarian Forest National Park | Manthey M.,University of Greifswald | Durhammer O.,Am Schlagteil 23 | And 5 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010

Understanding the major drivers of diversity in forests is crucial for ecologists, conservationists, and particularly forest managers. In most forested habitats, bryophytes are diverse and important primary producers. Here we report the first study of the relative importance of regional macroclimate as compared to local variables on abundance, species richness, and community composition of bryophytes growing in soil and in dead wood in a mountain temperate forest. Using PCA axes, we built predictor sets for macroclimate, microclimate, soil attributes, and dead wood availability. The explanatory power of each set was tested using variance partitioning. Abundance and species richness of soil bryophytes was best explained by microclimate, whereas the community composition did not distinctively differ between the environmental sets. In contrast, dead wood bryophyte abundance, species richness, and community composition was clearly driven by macroclimate. Among the single axes, the component represented best by soil moisture was the main driver for soil bryophyte abundance. In contrast, dead wood bryophyte abundance was mostly affected by components correlated with minimum global radiation and minimum temperatures as well as by the component represented by dead wood. The component represented by canopy openness was superior in explaining the community composition of both soil and dead wood bryophytes. We conclude that (1) dead wood amounts should be increased in closed stands to act as a buffer during climate changes, and (2) open canopy, which provides important habitats for soil-inhabiting bryophytes, should be provided by management with slow reforestation after natural or logging openings. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Van Iten H.,Hanover College | SUDkamp W.H.,Gartenstrasse 11
Palaeontology | Year: 2010

Nineteen partial specimens of Conularia sp., together with an articulated agelacrinitid edrioasteroid and several discinid brachiopods, occur in close association with a probable biological substrate on a small slab of silty Hunsrück Slate (Lower Devonian, Emsian) from Bundenbach, Germany. Most of the conulariids occur in V-like pairs or in a single cluster of 12 specimens arranged in a fan-like radial pattern. Together with the edrioasteroid and (possibly) brachiopods, the conulariids probably were attached to the substrate in life and then were buried and possibly killed by a single influx of silty mud. The apertural end of many of the conulariids is partially covered by inwardly folded short lappets, which may have closed in response to rapid (but gentle) burial. Rock matrix in the apertural region of the peridermal cavity of nearly all of the conulariids exhibits irregular, variably dense concentrations of pyrite. The concentrations occur almost exclusively within the conulariids, where they probably formed as a result of the decay of retracted conulariid soft parts. Although the concentrations lack clearly defined anatomical features that can be unambiguously homologized with particular anatomical structures of any extant taxon, their form and distribution within the conulariids are consistent with the hypothesis that conulariids were polypoid scyphozoans. © The Palaeontological Association.

Südkamp (Paläontologische Zeitschrift 81:181-204, 2007: 198; Figs. 15A, B) described and figured the diplobathrid camerate crinoid Acanthocrinus spinosus n. sp. from the lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate of Karschheck quarry near Oberkirn, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. However, this name is preoccupied by Rhodocrinus (=Acanthocrinus Goldring 1926) spinosus Hall 1862 and therefore is invalid. A replacement name is proposed as Acanthocrinus multispina nom. nov. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

In this paper, the history of the type material of the asteroid Helianthaster rhenanus F. Roemer 1862 has been reconstructed. The most complete part is exhibited in the Teylers Museum in Haarlem, The Netherlands. This Haarlem type specimen is illustrated here, and interestingly, the X-ray seems to confirm the presence of large, semicircular muscle flanges along the midline of the arms, as figured and described by Spencer and Blake. These structures are the first soft parts ever discovered in Hunsrück Slate asteroids. Also, some minor corrections have been made to the description of Blake, and the whereabouts of the type material of the ophiuroid Stuerzaster (= Erinaceaster) spinosissimus F. Roemer 1862 has been verified. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Codiacrinus schultzei Follmann, 1887 commonly occurs in the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate of Bundenbach (Germany). Although this cyathocrinid cladid has been studied for almost 125 years, its morphology remains incompletely known. This article reports unusual arm growth, the regeneration of an arm, the preservation of tegminal plates, the sculpture of the cup (hexagonal concentric lines), and the preservation of visceral organs, which were positioned within the cup. One X-radiograph possibly shows the mid- and hind-gut (preserved as soft tissues). Furthermore, the shape and arrangement of the cover plates are described in more detail than previously. Codiacrinus schultzei is systematically redescribed and compared with the other species in the genus. Further study of the systematic placement (within the Flexibilia?) is appropriate. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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