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Shi F.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Zhao C.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Sun D.,Gansu Research Institute for Water Conservancy | Peng D.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | And 3 more authors.
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater is an effective approach to relief water resources shortages and its uneven temporal and spatial distribution in arid inland regions of central Asia. In this paper, 16 characteristic factors of water resources and related systems which are sensitive to different types of conjunctive use were selected in order to develop an index system for evaluation impact of conjunctive use, based on the fundamental types of water resources conjunctive use in inland basins. In an attempt to address the issue of spring drought and summer floods in Tailan River Basin in Xinjiang, three scenarios of conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater, well-canal combination, piedmont reservoirs and groundwater reservoirs were investigated. The utilization of water resources and the response of its related systems were evaluated and analyzed quantitatively using the groundwater numerical simulation model (Visual MODFLOW). Furthermore, the impacts of conjunctive use were assessed using the method of multi-level fuzzy comprehensive assessment. The results show that the scheme of combination of Laolongkou piedmont reservoir regulation-groundwater development, is the best in terms of the evaluation of water conjunctive use effects, followed by the well-canal combination. The comprehensive effect of well-canal combination along with groundwater reservoir wouldn't be better than the former both. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Wang L.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Wang L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun D.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Sun D.,Gansu Research Institute for Water Conservancy | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Plant architecture is defined as spatial arrangement of plant body such as the branching pattern, the shape and position of leaves and flower organs. The architecture of a plant depends on the nature and relative arrangement of each of its part; it is, at any given time, the expression of equilibrium between endogenous growth processes and exogenous constraints exerted by the environment. Desert plants architecture is a final product of plant-environment interaction, mutual adaption, thus the interaction and feedback among them would determine the development and succession of desert plant. Natural Haloxylon ammodendron and natural Haloxylon persicum are native dominant species in Zhungar Basin, which also are regarded as the important wind-preventing and sand-fixing plants. Because natural H. ammodendron and natural H. persicum are the characteristic of tolerant to dry, infertile soil, and wind-erosion, both as the ideal desertification combating species have played important roles in the maintenance of stability of fragile desert ecosystem. Therefore, natural H. ammodendron, natural H. persicum and artificial planting H. ammodendron were selected as the objects of study in Zhungar Basin. In order to understand the function and structure characteristics of desert plant and the response and adaptation mechanisms of plant-environment, the plant architecture characteristics (the bifurcation ratio, the branch angle, the branch length, the ratio of branch diameter, and so on) of natural H. ammodendron, natural H. persicum and artificial planting H. ammodendron were studied. The results showed that the over bifurcation ratio and the stepwise bifurcation ratio (SRB 1:2 SRB 2:3) were significant differences in natural H. ammodendron, natural H. persicum and artificial planting H. ammodendron (P<0. 05), and the over bifurcation ratio of natural H. ammodendron, natural H. persicum and artificial planting H. ammodendron were 0. 35 ±0. 23, 0. 50 ±0. 42 and 0. 15 ±0. 05, respectively. However, the branch angle of natural H. ammodendron, natural H. persicum and artificial planting H. ammodendron gradually decreased from first class to fourth class, the angles were less than 90°, and no remarkable difference among them were found (P<0. 05). The order of the branch length of natural H. ammodendron, natural H. persicum and artificial planting H. ammodendron were natural H. persicum > natural H. ammodendron > artificial planting H. ammodendron from first class to fourth class. The average ratio of branch diameter of natural H. ammodendron, natural H. persicum and artificial planting H. ammodendron were 0. 66, 0.68 and 0. 69, respectively, and ratio of branch diameter of artificial planting H. ammodendron was bigger than natural habitat H. ammodendron and H. persicum. As a whole, the architecture of natural habitat H. ammodendron and H. persicum performed a different width "V" type, but artificial planting H. ammodendron was spheroid-ellipse. Therefore the understanding of the desert plant architecture, spatial distribution pattern and micromorphology would contribute to further recognize the ecological adaption mechanism for the desert plants, which will favor desert plant community ecology theory and provide theoretic reference for choosing optimum plant species in desertification combating. Source


Yang F.,Yunnan Normal University | Shi Z.T.,Yunnan Normal University | Xiao M.J.,Yunnan Normal University | De Su W.,Yunnan Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Environment, Energy and Applied Technology - Proceedings of the 2014 3rd International Conference on Frontier of Energy and Environment Engineering, ICFEEE 2014 | Year: 2015

The Nanting river basin area is important in local economy development because it is the main grain base of Lingcang, Yunnan Province. An Agricultural Production Capacity comprehensive judgment index model of Nanting river basin has been built with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on 15 different factors from 3 different aspects: agricultural input, output and agriculture production environment. The research evaluated the agricultural production capacity of Nanting river basin using this model based on basin area level, Yunnan Province level and national level. The result showed that, the agricultural production capacity of Nanting river basin is fair at basin area level and Province level but worse at national level. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Source


Liu G.,Yunnan Normal University | Shi Z.T.,Yunnan Normal University | De Su W.,Yunnan Normal University | Yang F.,Yunnan Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Environment, Energy and Applied Technology - Proceedings of the 2014 3rd International Conference on Frontier of Energy and Environment Engineering, ICFEEE 2014 | Year: 2015

The precipitation samples of Kunming main city zone were collected from October 2013 to January 2014, and the dissolved state Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and other heavy metal ions of them were determined with the ICP-MS. Through analyzing and comparing the experimental data with cities at home and abroad, this paper got two sides results. The domestic side: the Pb and Mn contents of Kunming are the minimum, slightly higher contents are Cu, Ni, and Cr, but they are also parts of the downstream level. Abroad: the contents of Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn are higher than that of Japan and Germany, but the contents of Mn, Pb and Cd are lower than that of Belgium. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr of the fall and winter precipitation of Kunming main city zone are all reach at Class II of “Surface Water Quality Standards”, and As and Cd reach at Class I standard, the content of Mn is lower than the standard detection limit, therefor, this provided a guarantee of water security for Kunming main city zone, which depends on precipitation recharge production and living water. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Source


Rockstrom J.,Stockholm Environment Institute | Rockstrom J.,University of Stockholm | Karlberg L.,Stockholm Environment Institute | Karlberg L.,University of Stockholm | And 8 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Rainfed agriculture plays and will continue to play a dominant role in providing food and livelihoods for an increasing world population. We describe the world's semi-arid and dry sub-humid savannah and steppe regions as global hotspots, in terms of water related constraints to food production, high prevalence of malnourishment and poverty, and rapidly increasing food demands. We argue that major water investments in agriculture are required. In these regions yield gaps are large, not due to lack of water per se, but rather due to inefficient management of water, soils, and crops. An assessment of management options indicates that knowledge exists regarding technologies, management systems, and planning methods. A key strategy is to minimise risk for dry spell induced crop failures, which requires an emphasis on water harvesting systems for supplemental irrigation. Large-scale adoption of water harvesting systems will require a paradigm shift in Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), in which rainfall is regarded as the entry point for the governance of freshwater, thus incorporating green water resources (sustaining rainfed agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems) and blue water resources (local runoff). The divide between rainfed and irrigated agriculture needs to be reconsidered in favor of a governance, investment, and management paradigm, which considers all water options in agricultural systems. A new focus is needed on the meso-catchment scale, as opposed to the current focus of IWRM on the basin level and the primary focus of agricultural improvements on the farmer's field. We argue that the catchment scale offers the best opportunities for water investments to build resilience in small-scale agricultural systems and to address trade-offs between water for food and other ecosystem functions and services. © 2009. Source

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