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Kang J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Kang J.,Gansu Research Academy of Forestry Science and Technology | Zhao W.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Su P.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014

Abstract: Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey), a C4 perennial woody species of the desert areas of northwest China, is a succulent xerophyte that has excellent adaptability to adverse arid environments. Our previous investigations showed that sodium (Na+) has a positive effect on the growth and drought resistance of Haloxylon ammodendron under drought conditions, which was closely related to high Na+ accumulation in photosynthesizing stems (PS). In this study, we further investigated the effect of Na (as sodium chloride, NaCl), Si (as silicic acid, H2SiO3) and Na and Si coexistence (NaCl + H2SiO3) on the growth and drought resistance of Haloxylon ammodendron under water deficit (30% of field water capacity) in a pot culture experiment. The results indicate that 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl, 0.2 g kg−1 H2SiO3 and Na and Si coexistence (0.3 g kg−1 NaCl + 0.1 g kg−1 H2SiO3) could effectively mitigate deleterious impacts of drought stress on the growth of Haloxylon ammodendron, and the coexistence of 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl + 0.1 g kg−1 H2SiO3 could more effectively mitigate deleterious impacts of drought stress on the growth of Haloxylon ammodendron than the 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl or 0.2 g kg−1 H2SiO3. The coexistence of 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl + 0.1 g kg−1 H2SiO3 encourages plant height, crown diameter, biomass and main root length and, concomitantly, accumulates a higher concentration of Na+ and Si (SiO2) than Potassium (K+) to adapt to arid environments. In comparison with the 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl or 0.2 g kg−1 H2SiO3, a significant increase in total Na+ concentrations by 18.4% and 135.3%, and a significant increase in total Si (SiO2) concentrations by 92.6% and 15.6% (compared with 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl or 0.1 g kg−1 H2SiO3) were observed in plants grown in the presence of the coexistence of 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl + 0.1 g kg−1 H2SiO3. These findings suggest that the positive roles of Na and Si coexistence in the drought resistance of Haloxylon ammodendron might be due to the ability of the plants to accumulate a high concentration of Na+ as an important physiological osmoregulator, while still absorbing and accumulating a large amount of Si (SiO2) to cope with drought stress. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying how Si, Na, and Si and Na coexistence promote growth and enhance drought resistance of Haloxylon ammodendron need further research. © 2014, © 2014 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. Source


Kang J.J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Kang J.J.,Gansu Research Academy of Forestry Science and Technology | Zhao W.Z.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Zhao M.,Gansu Research Academy of Forestry Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2015

A pot trial was conducted to investigate the effect of Na (as sodium chloride, NaCl), and Na and Si (as sodium metasilicate nonahydrate, Na2SiO3·9H2O) coexistence (NaCl + Na2SiO3) on the growth of the succulent xerophyte Nitraria tangutorum under drought (30 % of field water capacity) in pot culture experiment. The results indicate that 1.2 g kg−1 NaCl, and the coexistence of 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl + 0.72 g kg−1 Na2SiO3 can effectively promote the growth, and the coexistence can more effectively strengthen the growth of N. tangutorum than the 1.2 g kg−1 NaCl. The coexistence encourages plant height, root/shoot, biomass and main root length and, concomitantly, accumulating a higher concentration of Na+ (shoots) and Si (SiO2) (roots) than K+ to adapt to arid environment. In comparison with the 1.2 g kg−1 NaCl, a significant increase of Na+ in shoots by 11.9 % and Si in shoots and roots by 173.1 and 191.8 %, respectively were observed in the coexistence of 0.3 g kg−1 NaCl + 0.72 g kg−1 Na2SiO3. These findings suggest that the positive roles of Na and Si coexistence on the growth of N. tangutorum under drought might be due to the ability to accumulate a high concentration of Na+ as an important physiological osmoregulator, while still absorbing and accumulating a large amount of Si (SiO2) to stimulate growth under drought. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Kang J.,Lanzhou University | Kang J.,Gansu Research Academy of Forestry Science and Technology | Duan J.,Lanzhou University | Wang S.,Lanzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013

Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.), a C4 perennial woody species native to the desert areas of northwest China, is a succulent xerophyte belonging to Chenopodiaceae (Haloxylon) with excellent adaptability to adverse arid environments. Our previous investigations showed that sodium (Na+) has a positive effect on the growth of Zygophyllum xanthoxylum under drought conditions, which was closely related to high Na+ accumulation in leaves. To reveal the effects of Na compound fertilizer on the growth and drought resistance of Haloxylon ammodendron and its ecological environment, plants were treated with Diammonium phosphate and Na compound fertilizer and then were subjected to water deficit (30% of field water capacity) in pot and field culture experiments (Apri1 to September 2008). One-year-old plants were transplanted to a desert habitat in Apri1 2009 and harvested in September 2009. The results (take the pot culture experiment, for example) indicate that Na compound fertilizer could significantly mitigate deleterious impacts of drought stress on the growth of Haloxylon ammodendron. The fertilizer encourages plant height, crown diameter, main root length and biomass and raises survival rate of transplanting and, concomitantly, accumulates a higher concentration of Na+ than potassium (K+) in the photosynthesizing stems for osmotic adjustment. The contribution of Na+ to the osmotic potential (compared with the control) varied from 14% in plants subjected to diammonium phosphate and, surprisingly, to 95% in plants grown in the presence of Na compound fertilizer under water deficit (April 2008 to September, 2009). Furthermore, the distribution characteristics of the total Na+ (1296 mg) in the Na compound fertilizer showed that 756 mg (58%) is absorbed by plants, 344 mg (27%) remained in the pot and 184 mg (15%) leached, which accounted for 6.2% of the nursery soil, respectively (April 2008 to September 2009). The positive effect of Na compound fertilizer on the growth and drought resistance of Haloxylon ammodendron and ecological environment were also confirmed in field culture experiments (April 2008 to September 2009). These findings suggest that Na compound fertilizer popularization and application can be one of the most effective strategies to restore and reconstruct degraded vegetation in many arid and semi-arid areas. © 2013 Copyright Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. Source


Kang J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Kang J.,Gansu Research Academy of Forestry Science and Technology | Zhao W.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Zhao M.,Gansu Research Academy of Forestry Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2015

Picea crassifolia Kom, a perennial arbor species is recognized as one of the most adaptable plants found to date in Qilian Mountains. To explore the cutting reproduction technology of P. crassifolia and reveal its rooting mechanism, cuttings of P. crassifolia with different cutting types (softwood, hardwood and root), positions (top, upper, middle and bottom) and ages (7, 10, 15, 20, 25 year-old) were cultivated in a field experiment. One-year old softwood and hardwood cuttings were collected from 7-, 10-, 15-, 20-, and 25 year-old healthy ortets to analyze the changes from endogenous hormones and organic nutrients. Results indicate that the softwood cuttings (0.5–1.0 cm in diameter) from upper branches of 15 year-old ortets shows better growth performance by improving rooting indexes, including a significant increase in rooting rate and a decrease in basal rot rate. Concomitantly, increasing rooting quantity and root length also increased. It is noteworthy that the high rooting rate of P. crassifolia cuttings due to its ability to accumulate high concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and total carbon (TC) rather than abscisic acid (ABA) and total nitrogen (TN). The rooting rate was mainly regulated by the IAA/ABA and TC/TN ratio. In summary, our results suggest that the softwood cuttings (0.5–1.0 cm in diameter) from upper branches of 15 year-old P. crassifolia can be considered as an effective strategy to improve cutting rooting rate, and the IAA/ABA and TC/TN ratio was one of the main factors limiting the cutting rooting rate of P. crassifolia. © 2015, Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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