Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science

Lanzhou, China

Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science

Lanzhou, China
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Lamptey S.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Lamptey S.,Gansu Agricultural University | Lamptey S.,University for Development Studies | Li L.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | And 11 more authors.
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2017

In semi-arid areas, increasing CO2 emissions are threatening agricultural sustainability. It is unclear whether different tillage practices without residue returned could help alleviate these issues while increasing crop productivity. This study aimed to quantify soil respiration under conventional tillage (CT); rotary tillage (RT); subsoiling (SS) and no-till (NT), all without residue returned in the Western Loess Plateau. The results showed that SS and NT significantly decreased soil respiration compared to CT, but the effects of SS was the greatest. As a result, SS decreased carbon emission by 22% in 2014 and 19% in 2015 versus CT. The trends of net ecosystem production under different tillage systems were as follows: CT > RT > NT > SS. No-till increased net ecosystem production by 33% in 2014 and 12% in 2015 relative to CT. The SS treatment increased average grain yield by 27% and 23% over CT and RT, and enhanced water use efficiency by an average of 43%. On average, SS increased carbon emission efficiency by 60% and 43% compared to CT and RT, respectively. Thus, subsoiling management strategy is a promising option for the development of sustainable agriculture in semi-arid areas. © 2017, Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.


Hu F.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Hu F.,Gansu Agricultural University | Feng F.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Feng F.,Gansu Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2017

Crop intensification has been used as a mean to increase crop yield and secure food supplies in developing countries. However, issues about CO2 mitigation, water consumption, and the overall viability associated with the crop intensification have become a concern. The main objective of this study was to investigate how the yield related environmental factors, i.e. soil CO2 emission and crop water use would responsed to wheat-maize intercropping with conservation practices. Here we determined crop yield, plant biomass carbon, soil CO2 emission, and crop water use in various cropping systems. The field experiment was conducted at Wuwei Experimental Station in an arid oasis region (37°57′N, 102°37′E), in 2011 and 2012. Four tillage and crop residue options were applied to wheat-maize intercropping. They were (a) no-till with stubble standing (NTS), (b) no-till with stubble mulching (NTM), (c) reduced tillage with stubble incorporated into the soil (RTS), and (d) conventional tillage without stubble retention (CT). Averaged across two years, wheat-maize intercropping integrated with no-till and stubble mulching yielded 1.6 t ha−1 more grains and 7.1 MJ ha−1 more energy, while emitted 1.2 t ha−1 less soil CO2 than conventional wheat-maize intercropping; at the same time, the system increased plant biomass carbon by 16%, and enhanced CO2 emission efficiency per unit of grain yield by 39%, compared with the conventional system. Also, the integrated system decreased soil evaporation by 11%, increased energy yield per unit of water by 19%, and lowered CO2 emission per unit of water by 9%. Among the wheat-maize intercropping systems evaluated, the treatment with no-till and crop residue mulched on the soil surface had the highest evaluation index at 0.82; this was attributable to the increases of carbon emission efficiency by 48% and water use efficiency by 22%, compared with the conventional system. Wheat-maize intercropping integrated with no-till and stubble retention can be used to increase crop yield efficiently while reducing soil CO2 emission and enhancing crop water use effectively in dry areas. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang S.,Gansu Agricultural University | Zhang S.,Key Laboratory of Grassland Ecosystems | Zhang S.,Pratacultural Engineering Laboratory of Gansu Province | Zhang S.,Sino Us Centers For Grazingland Ecosystems Sustainability | And 6 more authors.
BioControl | Year: 2014

Trichoderma longibrachiatum can be used for the control of Heterodera avenae in crops, but the effectiveness and possible mechanisms are unknown. Here we determined the efficacy and the mechanism responsible for the nematode control in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seedlings inoculated with T. longibrachiatum at the concentrations from 1.5 × 104 to 1.5 × 108 spores ml-1 significantly increased plant height, root length, and plant biomass; decreased H. avenae infection in both rhizospheric soil and roots; and enhanced chlorophyll content, root activity, and the specific activities of resistance-related enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase), compared to the control. Those reactions occurred soon after T. longibrachiatum inoculation and the effect reached the maximum 7-9 days after inoculation. Promoting competitive plant growth and inducing enzyme-trigged resistance serve as the main mechanism responsible for T. longibrachiatum against H. avenae. T. longibrachiatum can be considered an effective biocontrol agent against H. avenae in wheat. © 2014 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).


Zhang S.,Gansu Agricultural University | Zhang S.,Key Laboratory of Grassland Ecosystems | Zhang S.,Pratacultural Engineering Laboratory of Gansu Province | Zhang S.,Sino Us Centers For Grazingland Ecosystems Sustainability | And 10 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2014

Heterodera avenae is a devastating plant pathogen that causes significant yield losses in many crops, but there is a lack of scientific information whether this pathogen can be controlled effectively using biocontrol agents. Here we determined the parasitic and lethal effects of Trichoderma longibrachiatum against H. avenae and the possible mechanism involved in this action. Both in vitro and greenhouse experiments were conducted. In vitro, T. longibrachiatum at the concentrations of 1.5×104 to 1.5×108spores per ml had a strong parasitic and lethal effect on the cysts of H. avenae, with the concentration of 1.5×108spores per ml having >90% parasitism 18days after treatments. In greenhouse, T. longibrachiatum inoculation decreased H. avenae infection in wheat (Triticum aestivum) significantly. Observations with microscopes revealed that after mutual recognition with cysts, the spore of T. longibrachiatum germinated with a large number of hyphae, and reproduced rapidly on the surface of cysts. Meanwhile, the cysts surface became uneven, with some cysts producing vacuoles, and the others splitting. Finally the cysts were dissolved by the metabolite of T. longibrachiatum. Chitinase activity increased in the culture filtrates of T. longibrachiatum and reached the maximum 4days after inoculation in the medium supplemented with colloidal chitin (1.02U/minperml) and nematode cysts (0.78U/minperml). The parasitism and inhibition of cysts through the increased extracellular chitinase activity serves as the main mechanism with which T. longibrachiatum against H. avenae. In conclusion, T. longibrachiatum has a great potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against H. avenae. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Fan Z.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Fan Z.,Gansu Agricultural University | Chai Q.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Chai Q.,Gansu Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

Higher irrigation quota for conventional farming causes substantial conflicts between water supply and demand in agriculture, and wind erosion near soil surface is one of the major causes of farmland degradation and desertification in arid areas. This research investigated the effect of the amounts of irrigation in combination with tillage practices on soil evaporation (E), water consumption (ET) characteristics, and grain yield performance and water use efficiency (WUE) for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) in strip planting in an Oasis region. The field experiment, conducted at Wuwei station during 2008-2010, had two tillage systems (reduced tillage with wheat stubble retention vs. conventional tillage without stubble retention), and three (low, medium, and high) levels of irrigation, in a randomized complete block design. Averaged across three years, soil evaporation with medium and high levels of irrigation was 6.8% and 5.4% greater than that with low level of irrigation, respectively. Total water consumption of wheat/maize crops under the medium and high irrigation levels was 8.5% and 18.5% greater, respectively, than that under low irrigation. However, grain yields were similar under the medium and high levels of irrigation, so was WUE. The effect of tillage on the wheat/maize intercropping was inconsistent across years or among treatments: soil moisture at harvest was 3.0-7.6% greater in the fields with reduced tillage compared with those with conventional tillage in 2008 and 2009, but no difference was found in 2010; the E/ET ratio of reduced tillage was 9% lower than the ratio under conventional tillage in 2008, 3% higher in 2010, but no difference between the two tillage systems in 2009. Across three years, there was a general trend that the WUE of the wheat/maize intercropping system with reduced tillage was greater (by 4-11%) than that with conventional tillage. We conclude that a medium level of irrigation is sufficient to achieve crop yields and WUE equivalent to those under high level of irrigation, provided that a reduced tillage practice is applied to the wheat/maize intercropping in Oasis areas. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Mu Y.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Chai Q.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Chai Q.,Gansu Agricultural University | Yu A.,Gansu Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Intercropping is shown to have yield advantages over sole cropping, but it is unknown how much yield increase is due to belowground interspecies interactions. This study determined land equivalent ratio (LER) and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/ maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping and quantified the magnitude of yield increases due to belowground interspecies interactions. Field experiments, conducted at Wuwei (37°96′N, 102°64′E) in 2008 to 2010, included sole wheat (W), sole maize (M), wheat/maize intercropping with no root-barrier (W/M), with a plastic sheet barrier (PW/M), or with a nylon mesh barrier (NW/M), vertically placed to one meter deep between the intercrops. Wheat/maize intercropping increased grain yields by 46% in 2008, 26% in 2009, and 64% in 2010, and improved WUE by 49, 30, and 20% in the respective years, compared with the corresponding sole cropping. The LER values ranged from 1.24 to 1.60 for W/M, suggesting that the grain yield of intercropping per hectare is equivalent to the yield that sole wheat or sole maize would produce on 1.24 and 1.60 ha. The W/M system had total yield of 10.6, 11.1, and 16.9 t ha-1 in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively; they were 20, 14, and 15% greater compared with the PW/M system; belowground interspecies interactions contributed 32% of the increased yield in 2008, 29% in 2009, and 40% in 2010. With the large, positive belowground interspecies interactions, wheat/ maize intercropping is shown to be a promising farming practice for improving crop productivity and WUE in arid irrigation areas. © © Crop Science Society of America All rights reserved.


Liu C.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop science | Liu C.,Gansu Agricultural University | Zhang R.,Gansu Agricultural University
PIC 2014 - Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Progress in Informatics and Computing | Year: 2014

This paper presents a modified fruit fly optimization algorithm(FOA). The proposed modified FOA establishes a balanced tradeoff between exploration and exploitation, and thus overcomes original FOA's drawbacks of premature convergence and easy trapping in a local optima. In the proposed modified FOA, firstly, the whole population performs a global search; Secondly, the whole population are sequenced in descending order by the individual fitness value; Thirdly, every n consecutive individuals are divided into a meme group, then every meme group iteratively performs a deep search around the local optima; Finally, all the meme groups are mixed, and then the above process is implemented iteratively until meeting the end conditions. The modified FOA efficiently avoids relapsing into local optima and improves convergence precision. Finally, our modified algorithm was validated against the original by testing on six standard benchmark functions, and comparisons show that the performance of the proposed modified FOA is much better than original FOA. © 2014 IEEE.


Hu F.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Hu F.,Gansu Agricultural University | Gan Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Chai Q.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | And 11 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Intercropping has been considered to be an effective approach for producing large quantities of grain per unit of land. Maize (Zea mays L.)/pea (Pisum sativum L.) strip intercropping may serve as a model for effectively boosting a system's productivity. However, how intercropped pea may compete for soil N sources with intercropped maize under various levels of N availability is unknown. Here, we determined the level of interspecific competition during the pea/maize cogrowth period, N2 fixation of pea, complementary growth effect on maize, and yield responses of the two component crops. The field experiment was conducted at Wuwei Experimental Station in northwestern China from 2012 to 2014. Different N management practices were implemented in the pea/maize systems. Intercropped pea was the dominant plant, as shown by the highly positive competitive ratio (averaging 1.35) and its aggressivity (averaging 0.31) values compared with intercropped maize. Ameliorating N application in the maize/pea strip intercropping intensified the interspecific competition, improved the N2 fixation of intercropped pea and increased the complementary growth of intercropped maize. On average, the N management system with 45 kg N ha−1 applied as the first topdressing plus 135 kg N ha−1 as the third topdressing increased the competitive ratio and aggressivity by 8% and 32%, respectively; improved N2 fixation of the pea by 39%; enhanced the complementary growth of maize by 10%; and boosted the grain yield by 13% (maize) and 6% (pea) compared to the N management system with 135 kg N ha−1 as the first and 45 kg N ha−1 as the third topdressing. Significant positive correlations were found among the interspecific competition, N2 fixation, and grain yield, clearly showing that improved coordination of interspecific competition can boost system productivity in maize/pea strip intercropping. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Hu F.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Hu F.,Gansu Agricultural University | Zhao C.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science | Zhao C.,Gansu Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2016

Background and aims: Symbiotic N2 fixation is essential in the development of sustainable agriculture, but the nodulation of legumes is usually inhibited by N fertilization. Here, the intercropping of maize and pea in strips under various N managements was used as a means to alleviate the inhibitory effect of mineral N on pea nodulation and N2 fixation and to improve system performance. Methods: N natural abundance (δ15N) analysis was employed to quantify N2 fixation in the 3 years (2012 to 2014) of field experiment in Hexi Corridor of Northwestern China. Four N management systems with N rate of 0 kg N ha−1 (the control), 90 + 45 kg N ha−1 (base N plus topdressing N), 90 + 90 kg N ha−1, and 90 + 135 kg N ha−1 were implemented in the maize/pea strip intercropping to form different ratios of base N to topdressing N. Results: Intercropped pea improved nodule biomass per plant by 99 %, increased nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa) by 35 %, and promoted aboveground plant tissue N accumulation by 35 % as compared with sole pea, averaged across the four N treatments. Compared to the highest N fertilizer treatment, a reduction of topdressing to 45 kg N ha−1 increased the nodule biomass of intercropped pea by 116 %, Ndfa by 35 %, and grain yield by 6 %. Conclusions: Adaptation of suitable N management in cereal/legume intercropping systems will allow an effective conversion of atmospheric N2 into crop available N and thus maximizing the system productivity. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Hu F.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid land Crop Science | Hu F.,Gansu Agricultural University | Gan Y.,Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid land Crop Science | Gan Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016

In arid and populated areas or countries, water shortage and heavy carbon emissions are threatening agricultural sustainability with food security severely, and becoming a major issue. It is unclear whether improved farming systems can be developed to tackle those issues through a sustainable agriculture. Here three farming practices that have proven to be essential and successful, which were: (a) crop intensification through strip intercropping, (b) water harvesting through conservation tillage; and (c) carbon sequestration through improved crop residue management options, were integrated in one cropping system. We hypothesize that the integrated system allows the increase of crop yields with improved water use efficiency, while reducing carbon emissions from farming. The hypothesis was tested in field experiments at Hexi Corridor (37°96'N, 102°64'E) in northwest China. We found that the integrated system increased soil moisture (mm) by 7.4% before sowing, 10.3% during the wheat-maize co-growth period, 8.3% after wheat harvest, and 9.2% after maize harvest, compared to the conventional sole cropping systems. The wheat/maize intercrops increased net primary production by 68% and net ecosystem production by 72%; and when combined with straw mulching on the soil surface, it decreased carbon emissions by 16%, compared to the monoculture maize without mulch. The wheat/maize intercrops used more water but increased grain yields by 142% over the monoculture wheat and by 23% over the monoculture maize, thus, enhancing water use efficiency by an average of 26%. We conclude that integrating strip intercropping, conservation tillage as well as straw mulching in one cropping system can significantly boost crop yields, improve the use efficiency of the limited water resources in arid areas, while, lowering the carbon emissions from farming. The integrated system may be considered in the development of strategies for alleviating food security issues currently experienced in the environment-damaged and water-shortage areas. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

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