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Shi X.,Gansu Provincial Academy of Medical science | Shi X.,Key Laboratory of TCM Pharmacology and Toxicology of Gansu Province | Ma Q.,Gansu Provincial Academy of Medical science | Yao Z.,Gansu Provincial Academy of Medical science | And 5 more authors.
Phytochemistry Letters

Two new iridoids, 1,3-dimethoxy-4,7-dimethyl-octahyhro-cyclopenta[c]pyran-6,7-diol (1) and isovillosol (2), together with two known compounds, were isolated from the roots of Patrinia scabra. Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as X-ray crystallography. © 2015 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kim C.,Yale University | Zheng T.,Yale University | Lan Q.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Chen Y.,Yale University | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

Background: Being overweight and obese increases oxidative stress in the body. To test the hypothesis that genetic variations in oxidative stress pathway genes modify the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we conducted a population-based case-control study in Connecticut women. Methods: Individuals who were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25) were compared with normal and underweight individuals (BMI < 25), and their risk of NHL stratified assuming a dominant allele model for each oxidative stress pathway single-nucleotide polymorphism. Results: Polymorphisms in AKR1A1, AKR1C1, AKR1C3, CYBA, GPX1, MPO, NCF2, NCF4, NOS1, NOS2A NOS3, OGG1, ATG9B, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, RAC1, and RAC2 genes after false discovery rate adjustment did not modify the association between BMI and risk of NHL overall and histologic subtypes. Conclusions: The results suggest that common genetic variations in oxidative stress genes do not modify the relationship between BMI and risk of NHL. Impact: Studies of BMI and oxidative stress independently may elevate NHL risk, but this study suggests no interaction of the two risk factors. Future studies with larger study populations may reveal interactions. ©2012 AACR. Source

Kim C.,Yale University | Bi X.,Yale University | Bi X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Pan D.,Yale University | And 7 more authors.

Background: Thyroid cancers have increased dramatically over the past few decades. Comorbidities may be important, and previous studies have indicated elevated second cancer risk after initial primary thyroid cancers. This study examined the risk of second cancers after development of a thyroid cancer, primary utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database. Methods: The cohort consisted of men and women diagnosed with first primary thyroid cancer who were reported to a SEER database in 1973-2008 (n=52,103). Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated for all secondary cancers. Confidence intervals and p-values are at 0.05 significance alpha level and are two-sided based on Poisson exact methods. Results: In this cohort, 4457 individuals developed second cancers. The risk of developing second cancers after a primary thyroid cancer varied from 10% to 150% depending on different cancer types. Cancers in all sites, breast, skin, prostate, kidney, brain, salivary gland, second thyroid, lymphoma, myeloma, and leukemia were elevated. The magnitude of the risk varied by histology, tumor size, calendar year of first primary thyroid cancer diagnosis, and the treatment of the primary thyroid cancer. The risk of a second cancer was elevated in patients whose first primary thyroid carcinomas were small, or were diagnosed after 1994, or in whom some form of radiation treatment was administered. Conclusions: This large population-based analysis of second cancers among thyroid cancer patients suggests that there was an increase of second cancers in all sites, and the most commonly elevated second cancers were the salivary gland and kidney. Additionally, the increase in second cancers in patients with recently diagnosed thyroid microcarcinomas (<10 mm) suggests that aggressive radiation treatment of the first primary thyroid cancer, the environment, and genetic susceptibility, may increase the risk of a second cancer. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Chen Y.,Lanzhou University | Chen Y.,Yale University | Zheng T.,Yale University | Lan Q.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 11 more authors.

We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes modify the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Compared with those with BMI less than 25 kg/m2, women with BMI more than or equal to 25 kg/m2 had 50% to 90% increased risk of NHL among women who carried IFNGR2 (rs9808753) AA, IL5 (rs2069812) CT/TT, IL7R (rs1494555) AA, and TNF (rs1799724) CC genotypes, but no increased risk among women with IFNGR2 AG/GG, IL5 CC, IL7R AG/GG, and TNF CT/TT genotypes. A significant interaction with BMI was only observed for IFNGR2 (rs9808753 Pforinteraction = .034) and IL7R (rs1494555 P forinteraction = .016) for NHL overall; IL7R (rs1494555 P forinteraction = .016) and TNF (1799724 Pforinteraction = .031) for B-cell lymphoma; and IL5 (rs2069812 Pforinteraction = .034) for T-cell lymphoma. After stratification by common B-cell lymphoma subtypes, a significant interaction was observed for IFNGR2 (rs9808753 P forinteraction = .006), IL13 (rs20541 Pforinteraction = .019), and IL7R (rs1494555 Pforinteraction = .012) for marginal zone B-cell lymphoma; IL7R (rs1494555 Pforinteraction = .017) for small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia; and IL12A (rs568408 P forinteraction = .013) and TNF (1799724 Pforinteraction = .04) for follicular lymphoma. The results suggest that common genetic variation in Th1/Th2 pathway genes may modify the association between BMI and NHL risk. Source

Lu L.,The New School | Zhu G.,The New School | Zhu G.,Gansu Provincial Academy of Medical science | Zhang C.,The New School | And 11 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

Large noncoding RNA HOTAIR, transcribed from the antisense strand of HOXC12, interacts with Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) in the regulation of gene activities. Recent work suggests that it may have effects on breast cancer progression and survival. We evaluated HOTAIR expression and the methylation status of its downstream intergenic CpG island in primary breast cancers, and examined associations of these factors with clinical and pathologic features and patient survival. HOTAIR expression and DNA methylation were analyzed in tissue from 348 primary breast cancers with quantitative RT-PCR and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. HOTAIR expression and methylation varied widely in the tissues. A positive correlation was found between DNA methylation and HOTAIR expression. Methylation was associated with unfavorable disease characteristics, whereas no significant associations were found between HOTAIR expression and clinical or pathologic features. In multivariate, but not in univariate, Cox proportional hazard regression models, patients with high HOTAIR expression had lower risks of relapse and mortality than those with low HOTAIR expression. These findings suggest that the intergenic DNA methylation may have important biologic relevance in regulating HOTAIR expression, and that HOTAIR expression may not be an independent prognostic marker in breast cancer, but needs further validation in independent studies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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