Hai-Fang W.,University of Science and Technology of China |
Xia L.,University of Science and Technology of China |
Jun-Hu S.,University of Science and Technology of China |
Gui-Fang W.,Gansu Province |
Yan-Min W.,Lanzhou University
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2013
The effects of starvation for different time (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively) and refeeding on growth and body biochemical composition of Gansu golden trout were investigated. The trial was conducted for 56 days. The results showed that the compensatoiy growth occurred in refeeding fish after starvation, the body weight of starving 14 days was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05), the other groups had no significant differences (p>0.05). After being deprived of food, the content of lipid decreased and moisture increased significantly with the increasing of starvation period (p<0.05), returned to the level in the control group after refeeding except for the content of lipid. The specific growth rate, feeding rate and conversion efficiency in Gansu golden trout during recovery growth higher than that of the control (p<0.05), returned to the level in the control group as the starvation proceeded (p>0.05). It is suggested that over-compensatory growth occurred in group of starving 14 days in the course of recovery growth but the complete compensatoiy growth occurred in group of starving 7, 21 and 28 days It was due to the higher feeding rate and efficiency of food conversion after refeeding. © Medwell Journals, 2013.
Zhu Y.,Gannan Normal University |
Zhang Y.,Gannan Normal University |
Pu Y.,Second Artillery Command College Wuhan |
Yan Z.,Gansu Province
ICEIEC 2013 - Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 4th International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication | Year: 2013
Wireless sensor networks are formed by connected sensor nodes that each have the ability to collect, process, and store environmental information as well as communicate with other nodes via inter-node wireless communication. These characteristics allow wireless sensor networks to be used in a wide range of applications. Cluster-based protocols attempt to solve this problem by load balancing within the cluster and rotating the job of cluster head every few rounds in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we derive the formulation of the power consumption for opportunistic network-coded cooperative multicast schemes. Simulation results show that our approach can remarkably improve the performance of outage probability than direct multicast. © 2013 IEEE.
Record growth in the first half of 2016 sounds great for renewable energy, but the country has far more solar power than it can use. China’s epic solar binge accelerated in the first six months of 2016, as the country added more than 20 gigawatts of new solar installations. That’s nearly three times as much as the same period last year, and is more than the total installed capacity of all but Germany, Japan, and the United States. But signs are growing that the boom is starting to fade. Investment firm Macquarie Capital said last month that many of the solar farms built this year were hastily completed to meet the deadline of July 1, when government subsidies for new solar were cut. Further cuts are expected next year as the government tries to rein in runaway development. China now has around 63 gigawatts of solar power capacity, more than any other country. And wind, solar, nuclear, and hydro projects continue to be built out even though energy demand in China is nearly flat. Beijing is also having trouble meeting its financial commitments to solar developers: some 21 billion yuan ($3.16 billion) in solar subsidies have yet to be paid. The government is expected to announce its latest five-year plan for the energy sector soon, and analysts expect that the average targets for new solar installations could drop to 15 gigawatts a year—still huge by the standards of any country other than China, but well below this year’s likely total. Much of the new solar generation, particularly in the desert provinces of western China, is not even hooked up to the grid. That means much of the power is going to waste—39 percent in Gansu Province and more than half in Xinjiang, according to the Photovoltaic Industry Association. It’s part of a long-term supply glut that plagues China in the coal, steel, and concrete industries as well. “We all know how prone China is to over-investment leading to massive overcapacity,” Mark Clifford, executive director of the Hong Kong-based Asia Business Council, wrote last month. “Why should electricity be any different?”
A worker inspects solar panels at a solar farm in Dunhuang, 950km (590 miles) northwest of Lanzhou, Gansu Province in this September 16, 2013 file photo. REUTERS/Carlos Barria/Files More SINGAPORE (Reuters) - Renewables are powering a rare bright spot in the energy industry, with record job hiring in solar, wind and hydro partly offsetting the biggest round of job losses in the oil and gas sector in almost two decades. The boom in new green jobs is being led by Asia where governments in countries such as China and India are embarking on massive programs to use more renewable energy. The fresh opportunities come as the oil sector is suffering its worst downturn since the late 1990s, encouraging engineering students to rethink their options and even mid-career switches for some who have spent more than a decade in the oil sector. "It's a matter of time for me personally before I make the move," said a Singapore-based project manager for offshore construction at an oil and gas firm, who is considering shifting into solar after 15 years in the oil sector. "For me, it's not a question about running out of oil, but that the industry is losing popularity on the consumer end," said the manager, declining to be named due to his current employment status. Direct and indirect employment in renewable energy jumped 18 percent, or by about 1.2 million, last year to 7.7 million globally, with most of the new jobs being created in Asia, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Some of the biggest gains have come in countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Japan and Bangladesh and the overall figure could top 16 million globally by 2030, IRENA said. That stands in contrast to oil and gas, where more than 200,000 jobs have been cut worldwide since oil prices collapsed last year, according to recruiter Swift Worldwide Resources. The petroleum sector employs nearly 6 million, with more than ten times that number indirectly employed, according to International Labor Organization estimates. The latest job losses mark the biggest drop since the last big oil price slump of 1997-98. "The employment situation is a complete disaster," said Didier Le Hech, who until recently headed operations in Gabon, West Africa, for Weatherford International . Le Hech, who was one of 11,000 staff laid off at the oil field service provider this year, said he was looking for work in Southeast Asia, but given the tough market was prepared tocast his net widely. The layoffs are being nervously watched on campuses around the world by trainees in the oil and gas industry. "We're keeping our options open," said Faizzin Khafidz, a mechanical engineering student at the National University of Singapore, who is doing an internship at Keppel Corp , one of the world's largest offshore rig builders. "Personally I am open to opportunities to join the renewables sector especially if it is going to grow as it should," he added. Singapore is a major oil trading hub and servicing port, but the pain of the downturn is being felt with many oil servicing ships and drilling platforms idled off the island city-state. Interest in green energy jobs is playing out at colleges. New Delhi's Teri University has 139 students enrolled in its renewable energy programs this year, up from 97 in 2014 and 69 in 2013. "There are huge amounts of western money flowing into renewable energy in Asia," says David Russell, chief executive of Equis Funds Group, which has invested $2.4 billion in Asian projects over the last two years. In order to keep up with demand for green jobs, recruiters have been forced to develop placement expertise in renewables. "Because the oil and gas sector has been so hard hit, we've seen lots of people attempting to transfer their skills across to renewable energy," said Adam Carabetta, a recruiter at Drake in Singapore. The shift comes as many governments have vowed to curb carbon emissions by using more renewables. China, the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter, already employs 3.4 million people in renewable energy and this raised its solar installation target for 2015 by 30 percent. In India, IRENA expects 1 million new jobs to be created after the government pledged to triple installed wind capacity and raise solar power capacity 33 fold by 2022. This leaves some embarking on oil sector careers worried. "Most of my classmates picked petroleum engineering because of the pay. But now we can't even get a job," said Michelle Robinson, a third-year petroleum engineering undergraduate at Australia's University of Adelaide. "I sure hope prices recover before I graduate."
News Article | April 19, 2016
Image of the embryos having developed to the blastocyst stage 80 hours after launch. Image: Enkui Duan Chinese scientists are creeping a tiny bit closer to the future dream of humans colonizing and reproducing in space. They’ve succeeded, reports the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in developing early-stage mouse embryos aboard the SJ-10, a satellite that was launched into orbit on April 6 from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China’s Gansu Province. “This research is a very first step for [we humans] to make interstellar travel and planet colonization come true,” Enkui Duan, the principal investigator of the space mouse embryos project and a researcher at the State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology in Beijing told me over email. I caught Duan as he spent a sleepless night travelling to retrieve the mouse embryos (some of which survived) from Sizi Wangqi in Inner Mongolia—where the SJ-10 satellite landed on April 18—and back again to his team’s lab in Beijing for further analysis. “The experiment we have proposed in space was a big challenge. We boarded more than 6,000 mouse embryos on China’s SJ-10 recoverable satellites by using our newly developed large scale mammalian embryo freezing and thawing technology,” said Duan. The embryos before launch, at the two-cell stage (not yet developed to blastocysts). Image: Enkui Duan The team developed an embryo culture system and placed it within a small enclosed chamber that provides the ideal conditions for the embryos to develop in space. While the chamber was in orbit, a camera attached to the experiment took photographs of the embryos as they developed in microgravity, and sent these images back to Earth. With the aid of their imaging technology, the researchers were able to observe how the mammalian two-cell stage embryos developed into blastocysts under microgravity after four days. Blastocysts are structures formed in the very early development of mammals. In humans blastocysts begin to form five days after fertilization. The researchers will now compare their space-developed embryos to those cultured in normal laboratory environments on Earth to see what differences there are between the two at both a cellular and molecular level. In the long run, the researchers are tying their research into the more broader issues of whether humans could survive and live healthily in space, whether they could have healthy offspring in space, and if short or long-term travel in space could affect human fertility owing to exposure to harsh space environments. In other words, they’re dreaming big. “The question we focused on is whether humans could achieve the dream of surviving and reproducing in outer space in the future,” said Duan. “Now, we have finally proven that the most crucial step in our reproduction—early embryo development—is possible in outer space.” L-R Zheng WB (designer of embryo cultural box), Enkui Duan, Lei XH (embryo researcher) at the payload transfer area. Image: Enkui Duan Duan and his team have been working on space reproductive technologies for the last couple of years, and they first attempted to develop mouse embryos in space back in 2006. That time, the team placed four-cell stage mouse embryos in the SJ-8 satellite, which beamed back high-resolution images of how those embryos were getting on. “Unfortunately, all embryos failed to develop because of the high temperature in the culture system according to the data and images transmitted from the SJ-8 satellite,” said Duan, who didn’t give up. He and his team spent the next few years persuading Chinese state officials that “failure is inevitable in the path of such space exploration,” and that the team was set on succeeding if it was given a second chance. In the meantime, Duan also collaborated with researchers from the Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics in order to improve their space-faring equipment and in-lab culture systems. Though Duan admitted that humans still had a long way to go before they can could colonize space, he was adamant that his team’s project was a leap in the right direction. “As we know, after the embryo develops to blastocyst, it must implant into the uterus then develop into a fetus. Next, we want to see whether the embryo developed in outer space could implant into the uterus correctly and develop into the final step—the fetus,” said Duan. “We will further still focus on the possibility of mammalian embryo implantation and subsequent development as well as human pregnant ability in outer space. Our final conquest, is the sea of stars.”