Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology

Lanzhou, China

Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology

Lanzhou, China
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Liu B.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.,Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology | Kang S.,State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric science
Climate Research | Year: 2016

Four general circulation models (GCMs) under the moderate Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 emission scenario were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on monthly scale dune activity and desertification during the near future (2015-2035) in Anduo on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) of China. Dune activity was estimated by an improved index that uses the Penman-Monteith equation to account for comprehensive climate factors, including precipitation, air temperature, wind speed, humidity, and air pressure. Lower limits were used for the evapotranspiration values and the ratio of rainfall to evapotranspiration so that it was possible to calculate a dune activity index in the cold and dry winter months in the TP. The GCM outputs were transferred by statistical functions built from the control period (1966-2005), and the overlapping period of GCM projections and observations from 2006-2014 was used for error estimation. The results show that all GCMs captured the variation in dune activity well, although large differences in values were found. The statistical transferring of GCM outputs cannot reduce estimation error. The annual dune activity index is predicted to decrease by 7 to 9% during 2015-2035, implying that sand dunes will be easily stabilized in the future, but the 4 GCMs differ in January and February. If excessive surface disturbances can be controlled, the future environment in the studied area will be suitable for the reversal of the desertification trend, recovery of degraded land, and improvement of the living conditions for local herders. © 2016 The authors.


Liu B.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.,Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology | Ning D.,International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation | And 3 more authors.
Aeolian Research | Year: 2014

A grain-size study was conducted on the surface sediments found east of Kumtagh Desert and its connected geomorphic units, such as the wadi, wetland, oasis, and alluvial fan. The frequency, cumulative curves, and scatter diagrams of four grain-size parameters, namely, the mean grain size, sorting, skewness, and kurtosis, were plotted to study the grain-size characteristics of each sediment. Multiple discriminant analyses were applied to distinguish the deposition environments. Results indicated large diversities in the sediments from different environments. The aeolian sediments from the sandy desert and the gobi land show uniform characteristics or homogeneous changes. The sand resources from the eastern part of the desert can be considered as the alluvial deposits from the southern Altyn Tagh Mountain carried by several erosion gullies. Meanwhile, the western Mingsha Megadune inherited sediments from the nearby Danghe River. The discriminant functions proposed by Sahu can distinguish the deposition process. However, these functions lose their accuracy when applied to heavily eroded aeolian and gobi sediments. © 2014.


Xie S.-B.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.-J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.-J.,Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology
Tiedao Xuebao/Journal of the China Railway Society | Year: 2013

Sand-control engineering practice will result in sand deposition inevitably. How will the thermal regime of underlying permafrost change after the ground surface has been covered with sandy sediments?No significant conclusions have been drawn currently. Therefore, utilizing thermistor temperature sensors and adopting the synchronization contrast observation method in the test field of Honglianghe sand-damaging sections in permafrost regions along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, the thermal regime of permafrost lying underneath sand sediments of different thicknesses as the results of different sand-control measures taken along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway was studied. Both sand-block engineering projects situated in the outer-edge area with thick sand sediments and sand-fixing engineering projects situated in the inner-edge area with thin sand sediments were found to be able to make the ground temperature of underlying permafrost lower, seasonal thawing depths shorter, active layers thinner, freezing layers thicker and permafrost table higher. The maximum annual mean value of the permafrost temperature drop reached 0.3°C and the permafrost table rose by 0.4 m maximally. By mechanism analysis, changes of the thermal regime of permafrost after ground surface being covered with sand sediments were attributed mainly to high reflectivity and poor heat conductivity of sand layers. It is seen that sand sediments on ground surface are beneficial to improve the permafrost table and enhance subgrade stability in permafrost sections of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway. This has reference significance to other projects in similar zones.


Liu B.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Niu Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qu J.,Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology | Zu R.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Aeolian Research | Year: 2016

We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Li G.S.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Li G.S.,Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology | Wang W.F.,The Conservation Institute of Dunhuang Academy | Qu J.J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2013

This article presents research on destructive environmental mechanisms affecting the murals in the Mogao Grottoes, specifically Grotto 72, from a meteorological perspective. Analysis of outside monitoring data during 1999-2008 shows that condensation of moisture and/or salt deliquescence on the mural affects a high percentage of the internal grotto, whereas the interchange of moisture between the interior grotto and the surrounding air accounts for a relatively small effect. But high humidity was the threat to the mural, so the planting of the shelterbelts was a new threat to the mural due to irrigation of shelterbelts. The higher relative humidity (RH) produced by shelterbelts in front of the grottoes is only weakly related to local precipitation but is highly correlated with the times of water irrigation of those shelterbelts. The intra-seasonal variability of temperature and RH on the mural surface is relatively stable because temperature inversion frequently occurs in the internal grotto and is favourable for maintenance of stable air stratification that is beneficial to the preservation of the wall paintings. Using ridge regression estimation of the period data, coupling equations of the change of temperature and humidity on the mural surface, the internal grotto air and the external environment are obtained. The real-time dynamics of temperature and humidity are thus analysed and reported here, offering a scientific basis for establishing a long-term monitoring network in the Mogao Grottoes. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.


Xiao J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Yao Z.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.,Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology | Sun J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013

Optimal site selection for desert photovoltaic power plants is important to energy output and involves a multicriteria evaluation of many factors. This paper analyzes the factors influencing desert photovoltaic power station site selection and establishes an optimal site selection model for desert photovoltaic power plants using an analytic hierarchy process and geographic information system technology. We selected a typical desert area in northwestern China as the research location to test the model. Validation results were ideal, and the model successfully displayed the optimal site for desert photovoltaic power plants, from which the most suitable site for desert photovoltaic power plants could be selected. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Xiao J.H.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Xiao J.H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qu J.J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Arid Land | Year: 2015

The formation and development of dunes depend on wind-blown sand movement which is affected by the characteristics of sand material, topography, wind regimes and other factors. In this paper, we investigated two sand shadow dune groups in Shigatse and Za’gya Zangbo of Tibet and an individual dune in Da Qaidam of Qinghai, and analyzed their topographies and morphologies, and the physical characteristics of the sand, wind regime and sand transport. Formed under harsh conditions behind hills, these mature sand shadow dunes are hundreds of meters long, have significant ridges and crescent dunes downwind, and have a hill pass on one or both sides. Wind tunnel experiments revealed that the hill gap and wind velocity are important factors in the formation of these dunes. Sand shadow dunes formed only when the gap spacing is two-thirds of the hill height. When wind velocities are 20 m/s, the sand body is divided into two parts. The hill pass allows the transport of sand by wind, creating a “narrow-pipe effect”, which causes the transported material to gradually accumulate in the center of the shadow zone. We observed that the following are needed for sand shadow dunes to form: (1) strong winds, sufficient sand, suitable obstacles and a dry climate; (2) one or both sides of the obstacle forming the shadow zone must have a hill pass; and (3) the windward side of the obstacle must have a wide, flat area, providing adequate spacing for wind flow and transport of material and the leeward side must have a sufficiently broad, flat area to allow the release of the transported material. Research results on these newly discovered dunes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau could contribute to the understanding of dune geomorphology. © 2015, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer - Verlag GmbH.


Li G.S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li G.S.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Li G.S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qu J.J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences | Year: 2013

To study the micro-meteorological effects of different underlying surfaces of structures to protect the Mogao Grottoes, we analyzed basic meteorological measurements collected at weather stations located in front of the grottoes, on top of the grottoes and in the artificial Gobi. The results show that the shelterbelts in front of the grottoes have a heat-retaining effect. The profile of average daily solar radiation in front of the grottoes forms a sharp peak and the profile in the Gobi forms a parabola, but these patterns vary in different seasons. The artificial Gobi was more susceptible to extremes in temperature and had a faster response and wider response range to ground temperature. The average monthly air temperature, average monthly relative humidity, and the average wind speed in the artificial Gobi tend to first decrease and then increase with measurement height. Copyright © 2005 TAO All right reserved.


Xiao J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Xiao J.,Gansu Center for Sand Hazard Reduction Engineering and Technology | Yao Z.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Tiedao Kexue/China Railway Science | Year: 2016

A set of daily extreme wind speed data from five sites in hundred-li wind zone and peripheral areas along the Lanxin Railway in Xinjiang have been analyzed in order to obtain the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of wind speed and direction of the daily extreme wind and analyze the formation mechanism of gusts in hundred-li wind zone. The upslope wind of cold air and acceleration effects of downslope have been analyzed emphatically combined with topographic features. The main conclusion is that the extreme wind speed is significantly larger at Shisanjianfang, close to the Lanxin Railway, than at any of the other sites and even any other part of the country. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of annual mean value of daily extreme wind speed are 18.7 m·s-1 at Shisanjianfang and 5.5~9.1 m·s-1 at the other four sites. Prevail wind direction at Shisanjianfang is N and NNW, also is significantly different from other four sites. In the inner of hundred-li wind zone, prevail wind direction at west of Shisanjianfang is NNE and at the east is NWW. These results are in agreement with those obtained by array of wind eroded hill or hollow. This paper investigates the formation mechanisms for extreme wind that occurs frequently in hundred-li wind zone. The results from climate data analyses and numerical modeling indicate that the extreme wind is primarily a result of a regional-scale pressure gradient that develops due to: (1) accumulating of air mass that induced from the passages of cold wave high pressure systems blocked by the Eastern Tianshan Mountains; (2) asymmetric heating of the atmosphere between the northern side of the elevated Eastern Tianshan Mountains and the depressed, arid Turpan-Hami Basin on the southern side of hundred-li wind zone; (3) the regional terrain relief of Hundred-li wind zone and peripheral areas helps to enhance this pressure gradient and therefore strengthen the flow. This research reveals the formation mechanism of extreme winds in hundred-li wind zone along the Lanxin Railway, and provides the theory support for the windbreak engineering of the Lanxin Railway. © 2016, Editorial Department of China Railway Science. All right reserved.


Xiao J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Xiao J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yao Z.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Qu J.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Geographical Science | Year: 2014

The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) passes through 281 km of sandy land, 11.07 km of which causes serious sand damage to the railway and thus, the control of blown sand is important for the safe operation of the railway. Construction of the railway and sand prevention system greatly changed the blown sand transport of the primary surface. Effective and feasible sand-control measures include stone checkerboard barriers (SCBs), sand fences (SFs), and gravel coverings. This study simulated the embankments, SCBs and SFs of the QTR in a wind tunnel, and analyzed their respective wind profile, sand deposition, and sand-blocking rate (SBR) in conjunction with field data, aiming at studying the influence of Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR and sand prevention system on blown sand transport. The results of wind tunnel experiments showed that wind speed increased by 67.7%–77.3% at the upwind shoulder of the embankment and decreased by 50.0%–83.3% at upwind foot of embankment. Wind speed decreased by 50.0%–100.0% after passing through the first SF, and 72.2%–100.0% after the first row of stones within the first SCB grid. In the experiment of sand deposition, the higher the wind speed, the lower the SBR of SCB and SF. From field investigation, the amount of sand blocked by the four SFs decreased exponentially and its SBR was about 50.0%. By contrast, SCB could only block lower amounts of sand, but had a higher SBR (96.7%) than SF. Although, results show that SFs and SCBs along the Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR provide an obvious sand blocking effect, they lead to the deposition of a large amount of sand, which forms artificial dunes and becomes a new source of sand damage. © 2014, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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