Mangalore, India
Mangalore, India

Gandhigram Rural Institute, founded in 1956, is situated near Dindigul in Tamil Nadu, India. Dr.T.S.Soundaram and Dr.G.Ramachandran developed the institute. The Gandhigram Rural Institute was founded there in 1956 to carry on Mahatma Gandhi’s ‘Nai Talim’ system of education. In 1976 it was declared as Deemed University, by University Grants Commission , New Delhi, Under Section 3 of UGC Act 1956. It is fully funded by UGC. In 2006 it was renamed Gandhigram Rural Institute as per the guidelines of UGC. Again, as per UGC guidelines, the name of the institute has been changed to Gandhigram Rural Institute in 2009.With devotion to Mahatma Gandhi’s revolutionary concept of ‘Nai Talim’ system of education, Gandhigram Rural Institute has developed academic programmes in Rural Development, Rural Economics and Extension Education, Rural Oriented science, Cooperation, Development Administration, Rural Sociology, English and Communicative Studies, and, Tamil and Indian Languages.The work of the institute invited national attention and the Government of India , on the recommendation of the University Grants Commission, conferred the status of a Deemed University on the institute under Section of the UGC Act of 1956, on 3 August 1976.The institute has developed into a major educational complex, comprising seven faculties, offering in 50 programmes. It awards Doctoral, Master’s and Bachelor’s Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates through its seven academic faculties: Rural Development, Rural Social science, Rural Oriented science, English and Foreign Languages, Tamil, Indian Languages and Rural Arts, Rural Health and Sanitation, and, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. It has 3000 students and 150 teaching and 250 non-teaching staff.The institute was accredited with Five Star status by NAAC, in February 2002.It was re-accredited with A grade in 2010. Wikipedia.


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Purushothaman K.K.,SRM University | Muralidharan G.,Gandhigram Rural University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2012

Vanadium pentoxide (V 2O 5) has attracted attention for supercapcitor applications because of its extensive multifunctional properties. In the present study, V 2O 5 nanoporous network was synthesized via simple capping-agent-assisted precipitation technique and it is further annealed at different temperatures. The effect of annealing temperature on the morphology, electrochemical and structural properties, and stability upon oxidation-reduction cycling has been analyzed for supercapacitor application. We achieved highest specific capacitance of 316 F g -1 for interconnected V 2O 5 nanoporous network. This interconnected nanoporous network creates facile nanochannels for ion diffusion and facilitates the easy accessibility of ions. Moreover, after six hundred consecutive cycling processes the specific capacitance has changed only by 24%. A simple cost-effective preparation technique of V 2O 5 nanoporous network with excellent capacitive behavior, energy density, and stability encourages its possible commercial exploitation for the development of high-performance supercapacitors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Arunkumar S.,Gandhigram Rural University | Marimuthu K.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

Concentration dependent spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ ions are investigated in the prepared xSm:PbFB lead fluorobororate glasses with the composition (40 - x)B2O3 + 20PbO + 16PbF2 + 12Bi2O3 + 12ZnO + xSm2O3 (where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 wt.%). Surface morphological analysis and structural behaviors of the prepared glasses have been explored through SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared glasses have been confirmed through XRD spectral analysis. The presence of BO3, BO4, B-O-B and Pb/Bi-O-B vibrational stretching units in the prepared glasses are confirmed through FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. The optical characterizations were carried out using UV-vis-NIR absorption, luminescence spectra and decay curves of the present glasses. The calculated bonding parameter (β̄ and δ) values reveal the ionic nature of the Sm-O bond in the prepared glasses. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, Ωλ, were evaluated from the measured oscillator strength of the various absorption bands to study the bonding environment around the Sm3+ ions in the prepared glasses. From the JO intensity parameters and emission spectral measurements, the radiative properties such as stimulated emission cross-section (σPE), branching ratio (βR) and radiative lifetime (τR) for the 6HJ =5,7,9,11 emission transitions have been calculated. The experimental lifetime for the excited 4G5/2 level of the Sm 3+ ions in the prepared glasses were calculated from the decay analysis and it is found to decrease with the increase in Sm3+ ion content. The decay curves are found to be non-exponential for the higher concentration of Sm3+ ion which is due to the efficient energy transfer between Sm3+-Sm3+ ions. To understand the nature of the energy transfer, the non-exponential decay rates were fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model for S = 6 which reveals that the energy transfer process is of dipole-dipole in nature. Among the prepared glasses, 0.5SmPbFB glass exhibit higher values of emission characteristic parameters and quantum efficiency for the 4G5/2 level suggesting that 0.5SmPbFB glass could be useful for optoelectronic device fabrication and laser applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Selvaraju K.,Gandhigram Rural University | Marimuthu K.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

Structural and spectroscopic dependence of Sm3+ ions in B 2O3-TeO2-ZnO-Li2O glasses were studied and reported. The presence of asymmetric stretching vibration of B-O bonds in trigonal BO3 units, Te-O bond in TeO3 (tbp) and TeO4 (tp) units and the hydroxyl groups in the prepared glasses were explored through the FTIR spectral studies. The bonding parameters (β and δ) were calculated from the absorption spectral measurements. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4, and 6) have been derived from the absorption spectra and are used to predict the radiative parameters for the excited levels 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 of the Sm3+ ions. The lifetime spectra corresponding to the 4G5/2 level of the Sm3+ ion is found to be single exponential at lower concentration whereas it becomes non-exponential at higher concentration which is due to the energy transfer taking place among the neighboring Sm3+ ions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

A new biocomposite was prepared by incorporating inorganic ion exchanger namely zirconium(IV) tungstophosphate (ZrWP) into the chitosan biopolymeric matrix. The sorption behaviour of fluoride from aqueous solutions by this ZrWP/chitosan (ZrWPCs) composite has been investigated by batch technique. The fluoride sorption was studied as a function of contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, competing co-ions and temperature. The defluoridation capacity (DC) of the adsorbent was found to be 2025 mgF- kg-1. The composite was characterized using FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The kinetics of sorption was found to follow pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption is spontaneous and endothermic. The biocomposite was successfully used for the removal of fluoride from the field water taken in a nearby fluoride endemic village. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kumar A.S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of the Franklin Institute | Year: 2010

In this paper, we present a method for the numerical solution of Love's equation in a particular physical system. The resolution protocol is based on the Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme (BPES), followed by array analyses. The obtained results are compared with some recently published ones. The accuracy and the asymptotic behaviors of the solutions are discussed. © 2010 The Franklin Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kalimuthu P.,Gandhigram Rural University | John S.A.,Gandhigram Rural University
Talanta | Year: 2010

This paper describes the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and xanthine (XN) using an ultrathin electropolymerized film of 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (p-ATD) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode in 0.20 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 5.0). Bare GC electrode failed to resolve the voltammetric signals of AA, DA, UA and XN in a mixture. On the other hand, the p-ATD modified electrode separated the voltammetric signals of AA, DA, UA and XN with potential differences of 110, 152 and 392 mV between AA-DA, DA-UA and UA-XN, respectively and also enhanced their oxidation peak currents. The modified electrode could sense 5 μM DA and 10 μM each UA and XN even in the presence of 200 μM AA. The oxidation currents were increased from 30 to 300 μM for AA, 5 to 50 μM for DA and 10 to 100 μM for each UA and XN, and the lowest detection limit was found to be 2.01, 0.33, 0.19 and 0.59 μM for AA, DA, UA and XN, respectively (S/N = 3). The practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by the determination of AA, UA and XN in human urine samples. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gandhi M.R.,Gandhigram Rural University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

Lanthanum loaded silica gel/chitosan composite (LaSiCS) was prepared by mixing silica gel, LaCl 3·7H 2O and chitosan which was then cross-linked with glutaraldhyde. The LaSiCS composite was characterized using FT-IR, SEM-EDAX, XRD and BET. The adsorption of chromium(VI) ions onto LaSiCS composite has been investigated. The LaSiCS composite was found to have excellent chromium adsorption capacity than the silica gel/chitosan composite (SiCS), silica gel (Si) and chitosan (CS). The sorption experiments were carried out in batch mode to optimize various parameters viz., contact time, pH, initial chromium ion concentration, co-ions and temperature that influence the sorption. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe isotherm constants. Equilibrium data agreed very well with the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the nature of chromium sorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The LaSiCS composite removes chromium by electrostatic adsorption coupled reduction/ion-exchange. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Rajiv Gandhi M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2012

Silica gel/chitosan composite (SiCS) was prepared via., sol-gel method by mixing silica gel and chitosan and cross-linked with bifunctional cross-linker glutaraldhyde. The SiCS composite was characterized using FT-IR, SEM-EDAX, XRD and BET methods. The sorption of copper and lead ions onto SiCS has been investigated. The SiCS composite was found to have excellent metal sorption capacity than the silica gel (Si) and chitosan (CS). The sorption experiments were carried out in batch mode to optimize various parameters viz., contact time, pH, initial metal ion concentration, co-ions and temperature that influence the sorption. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe isotherm constants. Equilibrium data agreed well with the Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the nature of sorption is spontaneous and endothermic. The SiCS removes metals by means of adsorption and complexation. Sorption capacity of SiCS is compared with other sorbents which suggest that this composite was useful for removing copper and lead from aqueous solution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Viswanathan N.,Anna University | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Alumina possesses an appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC) of 1566mgF-/kg. In order to improve its DC, it is aimed to prepare alumina polymeric composites using the chitosan. Alumina/chitosan (AlCs) composite was prepared by incorporating alumina particles in the chitosan polymeric matrix, which can be made into any desired form viz., beads, candles and membranes. AlCs composite displayed a maximum DC of 3809mgF-/kg than the alumina and chitosan (52mgF-/kg). The fluoride removal studies were carried out in batch mode to optimize the equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, co-anions and temperature. The equilibrium data was fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption. The surface characterisation of the sorbent was performed by FTIR, AFM and SEM with EDAX analysis. A possible mechanism of fluoride sorption by AlCs composite has been proposed. Suitability of AlCs composite at field conditions was tested with a field sample taken from a nearby fluoride-endemic village. This work provides a potential platform for the development of defluoridation technology. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Vijayakumar M.,Gandhigram Rural University | Marimuthu K.,Gandhigram Rural University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2015

A new series of Dy3+ doped oxyfluoro-borophosphate glasses were prepared and their structural and spectroscopic behavior were studied through XRD, FTIR, Raman, optical absorption, luminescence and decay measurements. The phonon energy of the chosen host has been calculated using Raman spectra and the presence of BO3, BO4 and PO4 units were explored. The nephelauxetic effect and Judd-Ofelt theory have been applied to investigate the nature of the Dy - O bond and local environment around the Dy3+ ion site. The various lasing parameters like stimulated emission cross-section (σEP), branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetime (τcal) for the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 6H13/2, 6H11/2 emission transitions have been calculated. The luminescence intensity is found to decrease beyond 0.5 wt% and the same was discussed through various energy transfer mechanism takes place between Dy3+ ions. The Y/B intensity ratios have been studied by varying the concentration and excitation wavelength and further CIE color chromaticity coordinates have also been calculated for the generation of white light. The decay profile of the 4F9/2 excited level is found to be non-exponential and arises due to the efficient energy transfer between the Dy3+ ions through various RET and cross-relaxation channels and the same have been analyzed using IH model. Among the prepared glasses, BPB0.5D glass exhibit CIE coordinates nearest to the equal energy point and higher σpE, βR, σpE × τR, σpE × Δλeff and η values for the 6H13/2 emission band specifies its suitability for White LEDs, laser applications and optical amplifiers. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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