Dindigul, India
Dindigul, India

Gandhigram Rural Institute, founded in 1956, is situated near Dindigul in Tamil Nadu, India. Dr.T.S.Soundaram and Dr.G.Ramachandran developed the institute. The Gandhigram Rural Institute was founded there in 1956 to carry on Mahatma Gandhi’s ‘Nai Talim’ system of education. In 1976 it was declared as Deemed University, by University Grants Commission , New Delhi, Under Section 3 of UGC Act 1956. It is fully funded by UGC. In 2006 it was renamed Gandhigram Rural Institute as per the guidelines of UGC. Again, as per UGC guidelines, the name of the institute has been changed to Gandhigram Rural Institute in 2009.With devotion to Mahatma Gandhi’s revolutionary concept of ‘Nai Talim’ system of education, Gandhigram Rural Institute has developed academic programmes in Rural Development, Rural Economics and Extension Education, Rural Oriented science, Cooperation, Development Administration, Rural Sociology, English and Communicative Studies, and, Tamil and Indian Languages.The work of the institute invited national attention and the Government of India , on the recommendation of the University Grants Commission, conferred the status of a Deemed University on the institute under Section of the UGC Act of 1956, on 3 August 1976.The institute has developed into a major educational complex, comprising seven faculties, offering in 50 programmes. It awards Doctoral, Master’s and Bachelor’s Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates through its seven academic faculties: Rural Development, Rural Social science, Rural Oriented science, English and Foreign Languages, Tamil, Indian Languages and Rural Arts, Rural Health and Sanitation, and, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. It has 3000 students and 150 teaching and 250 non-teaching staff.The institute was accredited with Five Star status by NAAC, in February 2002.It was re-accredited with A grade in 2010. Wikipedia.

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Vijayakumar S.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Nagamuthu S.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Muralidharan G.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

NiO nanomaterial was synthesized at different calcination temperatures using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant via microwave method. Thermogravimetric studies revealed the decomposition details of Ni(OH) 2 precursor. The structure and morphology of the NiO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NiO calcined at 300 C shows a nanoflake-like structure. A possible formation mechanism has been discussed with time evolution study. Electrochemical studies indicate that the sample calcined at 300 C exhibits better charge storage. The NiO nanoflakes exhibit maximum specific capacitance of 401 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 mA cm -2. The energy generated and hence the charges collected from wind and solar panels are slow but in many applications the power delivery has to be at a faster rate. Considering this aspect, slow-charge and fast-discharge tests have been performed and reported. The NiO nanoflakes appear to be a promising electrode material for supercapacitor application. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

The present work describes the determination of picogram Hg(ii) using 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole stabilized gold nanoparticles (DMT-AuNPs) by a spectrofluorimetry method. DMT-AuNPs show emission maximum at 773 nm with excitation at 514 nm. They show a large stock shift (259 nm), narrow emission profile and good photostability. While adding 10 μM Hg(ii) the red color solution of DMT-AuNPs changes to purple and the UV-visible spectrum of DMT-AuNPs band at 514 nm was decreased. This is due to aggregation of DMT-AuNPs and it was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). UV-visible spectra of DMT-AuNPs in the presence of nanomolar concentrations of Hg(ii) do not show any significant changes at 514 nm. However, the emission intensity of DMT-AuNPs was enhanced during adding even at picomolar concentration of Hg(ii) due to photoinduced electron transfer and metal binding-induced conformational restriction upon complexation. Based on the enhancement of emission intensity the concentration of Hg(ii) was determined. The binding constant (K A = 2.6514 × 10 4 mol -1 L) value suggested that there is a strong binding force between Hg(ii) and DMT-AuNPs. The present fluorophore showed an extreme selectivity towards Hg(ii). The emission intensity was increased linearly against a wide range of Hg(ii) concentration from 1 × 10 -12 to 1 × 10 -7 M and a detection limit of 0.64 pg L -1 Hg(ii) (S/N = 3) was achieved for the first time using DMT-AuNPs by spectrofluorimetry method. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Hg(ii) in environmental samples. The obtained results were validated by ICP-AES. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Karthik R.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Meenakshi S.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

In the present investigation, the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution using cross linked-chitosan-grafted-polyaniline composite (CCGP) was compared with that of chitosan-grafted-polyaniline (CGP) composite. The composites were characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX, XRD, DSC, and TGA techniques. Batch equilibrium method was used for the optimization of various equilibrium parameters such as pH, contact time, dosage and initial Cr(VI) ion concentration. The removal efficiency by CCGP composite was found to be higher compared to CGP composite in all the studied conditions. The adsorption process was well described by Freundlich isotherm model for both the composites. The maximum adsorption capacity of CGP and CCGP composite for Cr(VI) ions was 165.6. mg/g and 179.2 mg/g at 303 K. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption system were calculated and concluded that the nature of sorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The Cr(VI) adsorption kinetic process was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the sorption process was being controlled by intraparticle diffusion pattern. Desorption and regeneration experiments of CGP and CCGP composites were performed and reused for more than two consecutive cycles. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

We wish to report a simple and sensitive method to determine the melamine in milk and infant formulas using 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole capped gold nanoparticles (AMTr-AuNPs) as fluorophore. The AMTr-AuNPs were synthesized by a wet chemical method and were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and X-ray diffraction, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The AMTr-AuNPs show the absorption maximum at 520nm and emission maximum at 759nm (λex=520nm). While adding 10μM melamine, the wine red color of AMTr-AuNPs was changed into purple and the absorption band at 520nm was decreased. The observed changes were ascribed to the hydrogen bonding interaction between melamine and AMTr-AuNPs, which led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles. This was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and HR-TEM measurements. No appreciable absorption change was observed for AMTr-AuNPs in the presence of less than micromolar concentrations of melamine. But, the emission intensity of AMTr-AuNPs was enhanced even in the presence of picomolar concentration of melamine. Based on the enhancement of emission intensity, the concentration of melamine was determined. The present fluorophore showed an extreme selectivity towards the determination of 100nM melamine in the presence of 500-fold common interferents. The good linearly was observed from 1×10-9 to 100×10-12M melamine and a detection limit was found to be 10fM/L (S/N=3). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine melamine in cow milk and infant formulas. The obtained results were validated with HPLC. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Edison T.J.I.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Sethuraman M.G.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2012

A novel green approach for the synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using water extract of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) fruit under ambient conditions is reported in this article. The instant formation of AgNPs was analyzed by visual observation and UV-visible spectrophotometer. Further the effect of pH on the formation of AgNPs was also studied. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, HR-TEM with EDS and DLS with zeta potential. Appearance of brownish yellow color confirmed the formation of AgNPs. In the neutral pH, the stability of AgNPs was found to be high. The stability of AgNPs is due to the high negative values of zeta potential and capping of phytoconstituents present in the T. chebula fruit extract which is evident from zeta potential and FT-IR studies. The XRD and EDS pattern of synthesized AgNPs showed their crystalline structure, with face centered cubic geometry oriented in (1 1 1) plane. HR-TEM and DLS studies revealed that the diameter of stable AgNPs was approximately 25 nm. Moreover the catalytic activity of synthesized AgNPs in the reduction of methylene blue was studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The synthesized AgNPs are observed to have a good catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by T. chebula which is confirmed by the decrease in absorbance maximum values of methylene blue with respect to time using UV-visible spectrophotometer and is attributed to the electron relay effect. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sophia J.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | Muralidharan G.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

Silver nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized using a simple route for the fabrication of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor. UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence and crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles. The morphology of the material was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fabricated sensor showed a significant catalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction, attributable to silver nanospheres protected by vinyl polymer. The sensor responds to H 2O2 in a wide linear range and the detection limit was 40 nM which is lower than most of the silver NPs based sensors reported recently. The sensor exhibits good selectivity, reproducibility and long term stability with a swift response time of 2 s. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

This paper describes the fabrication of graphene on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) attached through 1,6-hexadiamine on GCE and the simultaneous determination of structurally similar four purine derivatives using the resultant electrochemically reduced GO (ERGO) modified electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of ERGO was investigated toward the oxidation of four important purine derivatives, uric acid (UA), xanthine (XN), hypoxanthine (HXN) and caffeine (CAF) at physiological pH. The modified electrode not only enhanced the oxidation currents of the four purine derivatives but also shifted their oxidation potentials toward less positive potentials in contrast to bare GCE. Further, it successfully separates the voltammetric signals of the four purine derivatives in a mixture and hence used for the simultaneous determination of them. Selective determination of one purine derivative in the presence of low concentrations other three purine derivatives was also realized at the present modified electrode. Using differential pulse voltammetry, detection limits of 8.8×10-8M, 1.1×10-7M, 3.2×10-7M and 4.3×10-7M were obtained for UA, XN, HXN and CAF, respectively. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by simultaneously determining the concentrations of UA, XN, HXN and CAF in human blood plasma and urine samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Raj M.A.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | John S.A.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2013

We report a simple, facile, and reproducible method for the fabrication of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) films on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the self-assembly method. The graphene precursor, graphene oxide (GO), was self-assembled on GCE through a diamine linker which was preassembled on GCE by electrostatic interaction between the positively charged amine and the negatively charged layers of graphene oxide (GO). The oxygen functional groups present on the surface of GO were electrochemically reduced to retain the aromatic backbone of graphene. The attachment of GO followed by its electrochemical reduction was confirmed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Raman spectra show that the intensity ratio of D and G bands was increased after the electrochemical reduction of GO. XPS results reveal that the carbon-to-oxygen ratio was increased after the electrochemical reduction of electrostatically assembled GO. Further, Raman and XPS results confirm the removal of oxygen functional groups present on the surface of GO after electrochemical reduction. Impedance spectral studies show that the electron transfer reaction was facile at ERGO modified GCE. Finally, the electrocatalytic activity of ERGO was examined by studying the oxidations of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). It enhanced the oxidation currents of AA, DA, and UA when compared to bare GCE. The electrocatalytic activity of the present modified electrode was highly stable. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Chandrasekaran S.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2013

Economically viable copper oxide nano particles were prepared via a novel simplistic synthesis method using oleic acid as a solvent, surfactant and capping agent with varying reaction temperature (200 °C, 300°C and 400°C) by solvothermal technique to develop a high efficiency solar cell. The influence of calcined temperature on crystalline size, purity, morphology, structural phase transition and stoichiometric formation of copper oxide powders were investigated by using powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The band gaps were calculated by optical studies. The luminescence spectra exhibit band to band transition of copper oxide nano particles. From TGA profile the mass reduction was occurred below 300°C. The growth mechanism of Copper oxide nano particles from copper chloride dihydrate with oleic acid (OA) investigated. The maximum overall conversion efficiency of 0.863% has been achieved from I to V characteristic study in favor of copper oxide nano particles calcined at 400°C. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Vasimalai N.,Gandhigram Rural Institute | John S.A.,Gandhigram Rural Institute
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

In this paper, we report the morphological changes of gold nanoparticles induced by micromolar Hg(II) and the determination of femtomolar Hg(II) by a luminescent method. 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole capped gold nanoparticles (DAT-AuNPs) were synthesized by a wet chemical method. The HR-TEM images show that the spherical structure of DAT-AuNPs was changed into a chain-like structure after the addition of micromolar Hg(II) due to the strong coordination of DAT-AuNPs with Hg(II). The binding of Hg(II) with DAT-AuNPs was confirmed by XPS. The XPS of Hg5p shows two peaks at 69.3 eV for 5p1 and 74.35 eV for 5p3, suggesting that mercury was present as Hg(II), coordinated with DAT-AuNPs. The DAT-AuNPs show the emission maximum at 776 nm while exciting at 520 nm and the emission intensity was enhanced after the addition of even nanomolar Hg(II). The quantum yield estimated for DAT-AuNPs in the presence of Hg(II) was 1.5-fold higher than that of free DAT-AuNPs. This suggests that Hg(II) induced the fluorescence properties of DAT-AuNPs due to photoinduced electron transfer and metal binding-induced conformational restriction upon complexation. Based on the enhancement of emission intensity, the concentration of Hg(II) was determined. Further, the DAT-AuNPs showed an extreme selectivity towards the determination of 10 nM Hg(II) in the presence of a 50000-fold higher concentration of common interferents. The emission intensity increases linearly in the concentration range of 1 × 10-7 to 5 × 10-13 M Hg(II) and the detection limit was found to be 0.75 fM L-1 Hg(II) (S/N = 3). This method was successfully utilized for the determination of Hg(II) in environmental samples. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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