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Venkata Siva S.B.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Sahoo K.L.,Indian National Metallurgical Laboratory | Ganguly R.I.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Dash R.R.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science | Year: 2013

A novel method is adapted to prepare an in situ ceramic composite from waste colliery shale (CS) material. Heat treatment of the shale material, in a plasma reactor and/or in a high temperature furnace at 1673 K (1400 C) under high vacuum (10-6 Torr), has enabled in situ conversion of SiO 2 to SiC in the vicinity of carbon and Al2O3 present in the shale material. The composite has the chemical constituents, SiC-Al2O3-C, as established by XRD/EDX analysis. Particle sizes of the composite range between 50 nm and 200 μm. The shape of the particles vary, presumably rod to spherical shape, distributed preferably in the region of grain boundaries. The CS composite so produced is added to aluminum melt to produce Al-CS composite (12 vol. pct). For comparison of properties, the aluminum metal matrix composite (AMCs) is made with Al2O3 particulates (15 vol. pct) with size <200 μm. The heat-treated Al-CS composite has shown better mechanical properties compared to the Al-Al 2O3 composite. The ductility and toughness of the Al-CS composite are greater than that of the Al-Al2O3 composite. Fractographs revealed fine sheared dimples in the Al-CS composite, whereas the same of the Al-Al2O3 composite showed an appearance of cleavage-type facets. Abrasion and frictional behavior of both the composites have been compared. The findings lead to the conclusion that the in situ composite developed from the colliery shale waste material has a good future for its use in AMCs. © 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

Siva S.B.V.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Ganguly R.I.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Srinivasarao G.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering | Sahoo K.L.,Indian National Metallurgical Laboratory
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2013

In the present investigation, aluminum metal-matrix composite (AMC) is developed using a novel in-situ ceramic composite, converted from waste colliery shale (CS) material by heat treating in a plasma reactor under neutral atmosphere. The developed AMC has shown improved mechanical properties as compared to Al-Al2O3 and Al-Al2O 3-SiC composites. The present study encompasses the machinability of the developed AMC as well as the other two composites. The variables like radial force, feed force, cutting force, power consumption, and surface roughness are taken as index for machinability. The developed AMC has shown better machinability than the other two composites. The presence of free carbon as graphite in the developed AMC has helped to improve the machinabilty. The machinability results have been corroborated by surface roughness measurement on the machined surfaces of the samples. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Patnaik A.,National Institute of Technology Hamirpur | Satapathy A.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | Mahapatra S.S.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | Dash R.R.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology | Year: 2010

Polymer composites with SiC reinforcement have received increased attention for applications in erosive environment because of their light weight and unique properties. Thus, it has become extremely important to investigate their erosion characteristics extensively. This paper describes the development of a theoretical model to estimate wear rate on solid particle erosion of a multi-component composite system consisting of a polyester resin reinforced with glass fibre and particles. Taguchi's orthogonal arrays are used for analysis of experiential results. It identifies significant control factors influencing the erosion wear and also outlines significant interaction effects. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Prasad V.J.J.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Rambabu V.,GMR Institute of Technology
Biofuels | Year: 2015

In many countries, methyl esters of vegetable oils are blended with petroleum diesel and used as a partial substituent to petroleum diesel. In our experimentation, neat cotton seed methyl ester (without blending) was implemented as fuel for a direct injection compression ignition engine. Cotton seed methyl ester cetane number and calorific value are close to petroleum diesel. But the flash point, auto-ignition temperature and viscosity are higher than petroleum diesel. If it is preheated, the viscosity will decrease and flow ability in the fuel lines will increase. While injecting, the atomization level of the fuel was also improved by the preheating. But too much heating is not preferable, because it causes formation of vapors in the fuel lines. Preheating of methyl ester to the correct temperature gives better thermal efficiency and lower environmental pollution. Hence in our investigations, cotton seed methyl ester is preheated to different temperatures (27°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C, 52°C and 55°C) and implemented as fuel for a direct injection compression ignition engine. At these temperatures, engine performance, fuel combustion and pollutants in the exhaust gas are analyzed. It was found, preheating of cotton seed methyl ester to a temperature between 45°C and 52°C gives lower pollutants and better thermal efficiency. © 2015 © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Choudhury R.N.P.,Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar | Pati B.,Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar | Das P.R.,Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar | Dash R.R.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Paul A.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2013

Some new complex electronic materials have been prepared by mixing bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) and ilmenite in different proportions by weight, using a mixed-oxide technique. Room-temperature x-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of a new compound with trigonal (rhombohedral) crystal structure with some secondary phases. Studies of dielectric parameters (ε r and tan δ) of these compounds as a function of temperature at different frequencies show that they are almost temperature independent in the low-temperature range. They possess high dielectric constant and relatively small tangent loss even in the high-temperature range. Detailed studies of impedance and related parameters show that the electrical properties of these materials are strongly dependent on temperature, showing good correlation with their microstructures. The bulk resistance, evaluated from complex impedance spectra, is found to decrease with increasing temperature. Thus, these materials show negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR)-type behavior similar to that of semiconductors. The same has also been observed from their I-V characteristics. Complex electric modulus analysis indicates the possibility of a hopping conduction mechanism in these systems with nonexponential-type conductivity relaxation. The nature of the variation of the direct-current (dc) conductivity with temperature confirms the Arrhenius behavior of these materials. The alternating-current (ac) conductivity spectra show a typical signature of an ionic conducting system, and are found to obey Jonscher's universal power law. © 2013 TMS.

Padhy N.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Panigrahi R.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2014

The objective of data mining is to find the useful information from the huge amounts of data. Many researchers have been proposed the different algorithms to find the useful patterns but one of the most important drawbacks they have found that data mining techniques works for single data table. This technique is known as traditional data mining technique. In this era almost all data available in the form of relational database which have multiple tables and their relationships. The new data mining technique has emerged as an alternative for describing structured data such as relational data base, since they allow applying data mining in multiple tables directly, which is known as Multi Relational data mining. To avoid the more number joining operations as well as the semantic losses the researchers bound to use Multi Relational Data Mining approaches. In this paper MRDM focuses multi relational association rule, Multi relational decision tree construction, Inductive logic program (ILP) as well three statistical approaches. We emphasize each MR-Classification approach as well as their characteristics, comparisons as per the statistical values and finally found the most research challenging problems in MRDM. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Das M.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

Serratia marcescens strain was isolated at the laboratory from decomposed stalk of paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) by using swollen chitin as a source of carbon. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of the bacterium were studied. The bacterium showed exponential growth up to 18 h after inoculation in batch culture. The maximum enzyme production by the bacterium was analyzed at 92 h of inoculation at 30°C. Similarly, with respect to different concentration of chitin, the minimal medium supplemented with 1.75% of swollen chitin produced maximum amount of chitinase enzyme. Therefore, the present study showed that isolated bacterium is a good source of chitinase. Moreover, though the bacterium was grown at the cheaper medium, the enzyme can be used for biodegradation of chitinous wastes as well as biological control of fungal pathogen at cheaper cost. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Kumar Sen S.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Raut S.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering | Year: 2015

Biodegradation is considered to take place throughout three stages: biodeterioration, biofragmentation and assimilation, without neglect the participation of abiotic factors. However, most of the techniques used by researchers in this area are inadequate to provide evidence of the final stage: assimilation. In this review, we describe the different stages of biodegradation and we state several techniques used by some authors working in this domain. Validate assimilation (including mineralization) is an important aspect to guarantee the real biodegradability of items of consumption (in particular friendly environmental new materials). Since LDPE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing LDPEs. Recent data showed that biodegradation of LDPE waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution. Among biological agents, microbial enzymes are one of the most powerful tools for the biodegradation of LDPEs. Activity of biodegradation of most enzymes is higher in fungi than in bacteria. It is important to consider fungal degradation of LDPE in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of LDPEs have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with LDPE waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of LDPEs and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sen S.K.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Raut S.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Dora T.K.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Mohapatra P.K.D.,Vidyasagar University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3. g/l; contact time 72. h; microbial concentration, 3. ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Siva S.B.V.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Sahoo K.L.,Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Ganguly R.I.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Dash R.R.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance | Year: 2012

Al-Al 2O 3 (18%) composite was prepared by stir-cast melt technique. The microstructures showed uniform distribution of particulates, dispersed in the matrix. There exists discontinuity (~0.25 lm) in the interface between particulates and matrix. The composite was hot forged. Hot working resulted in fine recrystallized microstructure with particulates dispersed along grain boundaries. Formation of pancake microstructure with some inhomogeneity in the microstructure along three faces of the forged composite was observed. The discontinuity across the interface between Al-Al 2O 3 was reduced to 0.125 μm after forging. The as-cast and forged Al-Al 2O 3 composites showed higher wear resistance than pure Al. In lubricant media, there was no significant wear observed for either the as-cast or forged composite, whereas Al had shown higher wear at 50 N load.©ASM International.

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