Peshawar, Pakistan
Peshawar, Pakistan

Gandhara University in Peshawar, Pakistan provides specialized training in the healthcare science. It is a private medical college chartered by the government of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.The institutes that became Gandhara University were initially founded in 1995 by surgeon Muhammad Kabir. Wikipedia.

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Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Adhikari A.,University of Karachi | Khan K.M.,University of Karachi | Khan H.,Gandhara University
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

A new cinnamic acid derivative was isolated from the whole plant of Viola betonicifolia as off white needle. On the basis of various modern spectroscopic techniques including HREI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR, its structure was elucidated as 2,4-dihydroxy, 5-methoxy-cinnamic acid. It showed marked inhibition against DPPH (diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radicals with IC50 = 124 ± 5.76 μM. The antioxidant property of the compound was compared with α-tocopherole and vitamin C having IC50 values 96 ± 0.46 and 90 ± 0.56 μM, respectively. In case of antiglycation assay, the compound exhibited moderate activity (IC50 = 355 ± 7.56 μM) similar to standard compound, rutin (IC50 = 294 ± 0.56 μM). However, it was non-toxic to PC-3 cell line. It is concluded that 2,4-dihydroxy, 5-methoxy-cinnamic acid has antiglycation potential which was further augmented by its antioxidant activity and thus offered an ideal natural therapeutic option for the effective management of diabetes. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.


Rauf A.,University of Peshawar | Uddin G.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University | Roohullah,Abasyn University
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

To explore the free radical scavenging properties of crude ethanolic extract of galls, bark, leaves, roots of Pistacia integerrima and its subsequent solvent fractions viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable. In vitro DPPH based free radical was employed using querceitin as standard antioxidant while methanol as negative control. Different parts of P. integerrima showed marked scavenging on DPPH in a concentration dependent manner. The ethanolic extract exhibited 60.51 88.51% scavenging effect on DPPH which differentiated upon fractionation. Of the part used, leaves of the plant were the least effective while n-hexane was the least dominant fraction. However, the rest of the parts and fractions demonstrated profound scavenging potential. This in-vitro study revealed an outstanding free radical scavenging potential of various solvent fractions of different parts of whole plant P. integerrima.


Khan H.,Gandhara University | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Gilani A.H.,Aga Khan University | Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | And 4 more authors.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2013

The current study was undertaken to explore the antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile of the Polygonatum verticillatum in established pharmacological paradigms. The crude methanol extract of rhizomes (PR) and aerial parts (PA) of the plant were tested in Brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test. PR and PA both evoked prominent antipyretic activity (p < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner during all assessment times at the dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The protection elicited by PR (82.20%) at 200 mg/kg was comparable with aspirin (88.48%) as a standard drug at 100 mg/kg. However, PA was less potent, and maximum protection was 64% at 200 mg/kg. Both PR and PA were devoid of any anticonvulsant activity. Our results demonstrated prominent evidence of antipyretic activity of P. verticillatum that is consistent with the folk uses of the plant. In addition from a biodiversity point of view, PA of the plant can also be used as an alternate of PR. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Kaleem W.A.,University of Swabi | Muhammad N.,Hazara University | Qayum M.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan H.,Gandhara University | And 3 more authors.
Fitoterapia | Year: 2013

The current study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive profile of five cyclopeptide alkaloids isolated from Ziziphus oxyphylla, including Oxyphylline-B 1, Oxyphylline C 2 Oxyphylline-D 3, Nummularin-C 4, and Nummularin-R 5. The effect was studied in acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced flinching behavior tests, at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg i.p. In the post-acetic acid induced writhing test, the compounds significantly ameliorated abdominal constrictions in a dose dependent manner, with compounds 1 and 5 showing 80.98% and 77.87% protection, respectively. When challenged in the formalin induced test, pretreatment of compounds significantly attenuated painful sensation in both phases. Moreover, compounds 1 and 5 were more effective with 45.32% and 75.32% for 1 and 36.77% and 71.10% protection for 5, in the 1st and 2nd phases respectively. The peripheral analgesia was strongly augmented by the central effects of these compounds. The current finding strongly supports the ethnomedicinal use of this valuable medicinal plant in various painful conditions. © Copyright 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Khan M.I.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Hussain I.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan M.A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2013

Six new transition metal complexes derived from the reaction of 4(4-(dimethylamino) benzylideneamino) benzoic acid and Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) cations, were prepared, isolated and characterized by a range of spectral and analytical methods including UV/Vis, FT IR, NMR, MS, powder XRD, TGA and SEM. The complexes were formed with the deprotonation of the ligand and presented typical six-coordinated octahedral geometry. In addition, the biological activity was evaluated by conducting in vitro anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-leishmanial screenings. All the complexes were found more active than the ligand, while complex 7 revealed biological significance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Khan I.U.,Gandhara University | Khan M.R.,Khwazakhela Medical Center
Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists | Year: 2017

Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria is a rare genodermatosis, first reported from Japan. Later on many cases have been reported from other countries of the world. It is characterized by mottled pigmentation. We report first case of this disorder from Northern Pakistan with positive family history.


Rifat-Uz-Zaman,Gandhara University | Ghaffar M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2017

Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of seed of Gossypium herbaceum L (GH) and its aqueous and ethanol extracts were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Normal, Alloxan-induced diabetic and treated groups of rabbit were examined for their serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine and urea levels. Water/food intake and toxic effect of test substances were also observed in treated rabbits. Effect of test agents on architecture of pancreatic À- cells was evaluated histopathologically in rabbits. GH powder, its aqueous (GHA) and ethanol (GHE) extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced normoglycemia, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and urea in a dose dependent order (200→300 mg/kg of body weight) in normal rabbits. GH and GHE ameliorated completely the Alloxan effect on serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and urea in Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. GHA and Glimepiride (a reference drug) partially blocked such effect of the Alloxan in treated rabbits. Further GH, GHA and GHE did not cause any change in food/water intakes and on liver, spleen, kidney, lung and heart in treated rabbits. Phytochemical study of GH and its extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Histopathological examination showed the protective effect of GH, GHA and GHE against Alloxan-induced destruction of β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rabbits. Data indicated that GH and its aqueous and ethanol extracts have promising anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects. GH and GHE could be effective tool against the development, progression and complication of Diabetes mellitus.


Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME).Methods: VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p).Results: In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23%) protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90%) at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg.Conclusions: It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant. © 2012 Muhammad et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University | Haq I.,National Institute of Health NIH
Journal of Natural Medicines | Year: 2013

Viola betonicifolia (whole plant) has been used as a sedative and in various nervous disorders in Pakistani traditional medicines. The n-hexane extract of the whole plant of V. betonicifolia (HEVB) was investigated for neuropharmacological properties such as anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, sleep induction, antidepressant and sedative to ascertain its folk use. Anxiolytic activity was tested using the staircase test, while the muscle relaxing property of the extract was tested in various muscle relaxant paradigms, i.e. chimney test, traction test, rota rod and inclined plane. In anxiolytic and muscle relaxant tests, HEVB (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/kg, i.p.), diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or distilled water (10 ml/kg i.p.) were administered 30, 60 and 90 min before performing the tests in mice. HEVB was also screened for a sleep-inducing effect. The antidepressant activity was determined by using the forced swimming test (FST), while line crossing in a special box was used for locomotor activity. HEVB showed a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent anxiolytic action in the staircase test. In muscle relaxant paradigms, a dose-dependent muscle relaxation was observed. For the phenobarbitone sleep induction test, HEVB notably (P < 0.05) reduced the latency time and increased the total sleeping duration. However, HEVB was devoid of any antidepressant activity, while the movements of mice were reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in locomotor activity. The results suggest that HEVB has anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, sleep-inducing (sedative) activity and, thus, provides pharmacological justification for the use of this plant as a sedative and for the relief of various nervous disorders. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer.


Rauf A.,University of Peshawar | Uddin G.,University of Peshawar | Siddiqui B.S.,University of Karachi | Muhammad N.,Hazara University | Khan H.,Gandhara University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate pharmacologically the traditional use of Diospyros lotus as antipyretic and antinociceptive in various animal models. Methods: In vivo experimental models were used in this study. Antipyretic activity of extract/ fractions was evaluated in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermic mice while antinociceptive activity was studied in acetic acid induced writhing test at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. Results: The crude extract strongly ameliorated the induced pyrexia during various assessment times. Upon fractionation, the antipyretic effects were strongly augmented by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant. However, hexane and butanol fractions were insignificant in their effect as antipyretic. The extract showed marked inhibition on the noxious simulation induced by post acetic acid injection. The effect was strongly supported by other fraction expect hexane. Conclusions: In short, our study scientifically validated the traditional use of the plant as antipyretic. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.

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