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Peshawar, Pakistan

Gandhara University in Peshawar, Pakistan provides specialized training in the healthcare science. It is a private medical college chartered by the government of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.The institutes that became Gandhara University were initially founded in 1995 by surgeon Muhammad Kabir. Wikipedia.

Rahman I.U.,Gandhara University | Bashir M.,Korea Institute of Materials Science | Ur Rahman K.,Bannu Medical CollegeKPK
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2016

Protection against diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the main targets in diabetes treatment and present study evaluates the nephroprotective effect of Carica papaya L. in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. DN rats were treated with 1.5 and 2.5 gm/dl C. papaya leaf extract for 6 weeks to determine its nephroprotective effect with different parameters. Pimagedine (1 ml/mg) served as a reference drug. Compared to diabetic control group, C. papaya (1.5 and 2.5 gm/dl) treatment significantly decreased some important parameters including plasma glucose, HbA1-c, urinary AER and albumin/creatinine ratio. Improvement in GFR was also significant by C. papaya. However, the decrease in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma creatinine, blood pressure (B.P), total cholesterol and serum albumin levels were significant only in diabetic group treated with 2.5 gm/dl of C. papaya leaf extract. Serum triglyceride and urine volume decreased with both low and high doses of C. papaya. Histological examination revealed marked improvement in glomerular morphology after C. papaya treatment. The study concludes that C. papaya leaf extract may exert ameliorative effect on DN. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.

Khan M.I.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Hussain I.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan M.A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2013

Six new transition metal complexes derived from the reaction of 4(4-(dimethylamino) benzylideneamino) benzoic acid and Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) cations, were prepared, isolated and characterized by a range of spectral and analytical methods including UV/Vis, FT IR, NMR, MS, powder XRD, TGA and SEM. The complexes were formed with the deprotonation of the ligand and presented typical six-coordinated octahedral geometry. In addition, the biological activity was evaluated by conducting in vitro anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-leishmanial screenings. All the complexes were found more active than the ligand, while complex 7 revealed biological significance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME).Methods: VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p).Results: In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23%) protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90%) at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg.Conclusions: It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant. © 2012 Muhammad et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University | Raziq N.,University of Peshawar | Halimi S.M.A.,University of Peshawar
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (V. betonicifolia). Methods: The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer's yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice. Results: N-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h) when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation (82.50%) observed at 300 mg/kg i.p. When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test, the 1st stage (Ear and facial twitching) and 2nd stage (Convulsive wave through the body) was 100% protected during 24 h at all the test doses (300, 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.), while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased. The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p., as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure (5th stage) was increased up to 25.34 min. However, n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test. Conclusions: In conclusion, phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Barkatullah,University of Peshawar | Ibrar M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To study the screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves (SLO) for acute toxicity, antinociceptive, antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities in various animal models. Methods: SLO were extracted using modified Clevenger type apparatus. Acute toxicity test was used in mice to observe its safety level. Antinociceptive activity of SLO was evaluated in acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. Yeast induced hyperthermic mice and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsive mice were used for the assessment of its antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile respectively. Results: Substantial safety was observed for SLO in acute toxicity test. SLO showed a high significant activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in a dose dependent manner with maximum pain attenuation of 68.48% at 200 mg/kg i.p. However, it did not produce any relief in thermal induced pain at test doses. When challenged against pyrexia evoked by yeast, SLO manifested marked amelioration in hyperthermic mice, dose dependently. Maximum anti-hyperthermic activity (75%) was observed at 200 mg/kg i.p. after 4 h of drug administration. Nevertheless, SLO had no effect on seizures control and mortality caused by pentylenetetrazole. Conclusions: In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

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