Peshawar, Pakistan
Peshawar, Pakistan

Gandhara University in Peshawar, Pakistan provides specialized training in the healthcare science. It is a private medical college chartered by the government of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.The institutes that became Gandhara University were initially founded in 1995 by surgeon Muhammad Kabir. Wikipedia.

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Khan M.I.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Hussain I.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan M.A.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2013

Six new transition metal complexes derived from the reaction of 4(4-(dimethylamino) benzylideneamino) benzoic acid and Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) cations, were prepared, isolated and characterized by a range of spectral and analytical methods including UV/Vis, FT IR, NMR, MS, powder XRD, TGA and SEM. The complexes were formed with the deprotonation of the ligand and presented typical six-coordinated octahedral geometry. In addition, the biological activity was evaluated by conducting in vitro anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-leishmanial screenings. All the complexes were found more active than the ligand, while complex 7 revealed biological significance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME).Methods: VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p).Results: In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23%) protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90%) at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg.Conclusions: It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant. © 2012 Muhammad et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University | Raziq N.,University of Peshawar | Halimi S.M.A.,University of Peshawar
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (V. betonicifolia). Methods: The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer's yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice. Results: N-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h) when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation (82.50%) observed at 300 mg/kg i.p. When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test, the 1st stage (Ear and facial twitching) and 2nd stage (Convulsive wave through the body) was 100% protected during 24 h at all the test doses (300, 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.), while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased. The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p., as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure (5th stage) was increased up to 25.34 min. However, n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test. Conclusions: In conclusion, phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Rahman I.U.,Gandhara University | Bashir M.,Korea Institute of Materials Science | Ur Rahman K.,Bannu Medical CollegeKPK
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2016

Protection against diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the main targets in diabetes treatment and present study evaluates the nephroprotective effect of Carica papaya L. in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. DN rats were treated with 1.5 and 2.5 gm/dl C. papaya leaf extract for 6 weeks to determine its nephroprotective effect with different parameters. Pimagedine (1 ml/mg) served as a reference drug. Compared to diabetic control group, C. papaya (1.5 and 2.5 gm/dl) treatment significantly decreased some important parameters including plasma glucose, HbA1-c, urinary AER and albumin/creatinine ratio. Improvement in GFR was also significant by C. papaya. However, the decrease in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma creatinine, blood pressure (B.P), total cholesterol and serum albumin levels were significant only in diabetic group treated with 2.5 gm/dl of C. papaya leaf extract. Serum triglyceride and urine volume decreased with both low and high doses of C. papaya. Histological examination revealed marked improvement in glomerular morphology after C. papaya treatment. The study concludes that C. papaya leaf extract may exert ameliorative effect on DN. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.

Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Barkatullah,University of Peshawar | Ibrar M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To study the screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves (SLO) for acute toxicity, antinociceptive, antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities in various animal models. Methods: SLO were extracted using modified Clevenger type apparatus. Acute toxicity test was used in mice to observe its safety level. Antinociceptive activity of SLO was evaluated in acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. Yeast induced hyperthermic mice and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsive mice were used for the assessment of its antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile respectively. Results: Substantial safety was observed for SLO in acute toxicity test. SLO showed a high significant activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in a dose dependent manner with maximum pain attenuation of 68.48% at 200 mg/kg i.p. However, it did not produce any relief in thermal induced pain at test doses. When challenged against pyrexia evoked by yeast, SLO manifested marked amelioration in hyperthermic mice, dose dependently. Maximum anti-hyperthermic activity (75%) was observed at 200 mg/kg i.p. after 4 h of drug administration. Nevertheless, SLO had no effect on seizures control and mortality caused by pentylenetetrazole. Conclusions: In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University | Haq I.,National Institute of Health NIH
Journal of Natural Medicines | Year: 2013

Viola betonicifolia (whole plant) has been used as a sedative and in various nervous disorders in Pakistani traditional medicines. The n-hexane extract of the whole plant of V. betonicifolia (HEVB) was investigated for neuropharmacological properties such as anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, sleep induction, antidepressant and sedative to ascertain its folk use. Anxiolytic activity was tested using the staircase test, while the muscle relaxing property of the extract was tested in various muscle relaxant paradigms, i.e. chimney test, traction test, rota rod and inclined plane. In anxiolytic and muscle relaxant tests, HEVB (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/kg, i.p.), diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or distilled water (10 ml/kg i.p.) were administered 30, 60 and 90 min before performing the tests in mice. HEVB was also screened for a sleep-inducing effect. The antidepressant activity was determined by using the forced swimming test (FST), while line crossing in a special box was used for locomotor activity. HEVB showed a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent anxiolytic action in the staircase test. In muscle relaxant paradigms, a dose-dependent muscle relaxation was observed. For the phenobarbitone sleep induction test, HEVB notably (P < 0.05) reduced the latency time and increased the total sleeping duration. However, HEVB was devoid of any antidepressant activity, while the movements of mice were reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in locomotor activity. The results suggest that HEVB has anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, sleep-inducing (sedative) activity and, thus, provides pharmacological justification for the use of this plant as a sedative and for the relief of various nervous disorders. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer.

Nawaz S.,Gandhara University | Naeem A.,Gandhara University | Zeb A.,Gandhara University
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2015

Objective: To compare patients undergoing thyroid surgery without the placement of a drain versus patients undergoing surgery with placement of drain; in terms of hospital stay, operative pain score, amount of fluid collection in the neck and postoperative complications. Methodology: This study was conducted at surgical unit, Naseer Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 2010 to July 2014. Important variables of the study were duration of hospital stay, post operative pain score, amount of fluid collection in the wound as detected on ultrasound and postoperative complications. Visual Analogue scale was used to assess postoperative pain on completion of 24 hours. All the patients were subjected to ultrasound of the neck on the 1st post-operative day. The data was entered on a proforma and analyzed on SPSS 21. Results: The study included 68 patients; being grouped in to two groups the group with drain showed no difference demographically from the group in which drain was not placed post operatively. Mean postoperative pain score 24 hours after surgery was 60.87± 7.06 SD in the drain group and 41.19± 4.18 SD in no drain group (p value < 0.05). Mean duration of hospital stay was 3.63 days ± 0.707 SD in drain group and 1.19 days ± 2.145 SD in no drain group (p value <0.05). Conclusion: “Drain less” Thyroidectomy causes less discomfort, short hospital stay and does not increase the risk of post operative complications. Drains should be used only in selected cases of Thyroidectomy. © 2015, Postgraduate Medical Institute. All Rights Reserved.

Rauf A.,University of Peshawar | Uddin G.,University of Peshawar | Siddiqui B.S.,University of Karachi | Muhammad N.,Hazara University | Khan H.,Gandhara University
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate pharmacologically the traditional use of Diospyros lotus as antipyretic and antinociceptive in various animal models. Methods: In vivo experimental models were used in this study. Antipyretic activity of extract/ fractions was evaluated in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermic mice while antinociceptive activity was studied in acetic acid induced writhing test at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. Results: The crude extract strongly ameliorated the induced pyrexia during various assessment times. Upon fractionation, the antipyretic effects were strongly augmented by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant. However, hexane and butanol fractions were insignificant in their effect as antipyretic. The extract showed marked inhibition on the noxious simulation induced by post acetic acid injection. The effect was strongly supported by other fraction expect hexane. Conclusions: In short, our study scientifically validated the traditional use of the plant as antipyretic. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.

PubMed | Gandhara University, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan and University of Peshawar
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology and industrial health | Year: 2016

The current study was designed to assess the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum (PA) and its various subsequent solvent fractions using agar well diffusion, agar tube dilution, and microdilution methods. Phytochemical analysis showed positive for different chemical groups and also contained marked quantity of saponin and flavonoid contents. Significant antibacterial activity was observed against various tested pathogenic bacteria. The only susceptible Gram-positive bacterium was Bacillus subtilis and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) measured ranged from 11-50 g/ml. The sensitive Gram-negative bacteria were Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexeneri The estimated MICs were in the range of 2-7 g/ml and 8-50 g/ml for S. typhi and S. flexeneri, respectively. However, the antifungal activity of the plant was limited to Microsporum canis and their MICs ranged from 60 to 250 g/ml. Our study confirmed significant antibacterial potential of the plant and substantiated its folk use in dysentery and pyrexia of multiple origins.

PubMed | Gandhara University and Peshawar Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP | Year: 2016

To evaluate success of pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular 1st molar by using 4% articaine in buccal infiltration versus 2% lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve block.Randomized control trial.Department of Operative Dentistry, Sardar Begum Dental College, Gandhara University, Peshawar, from March to August 2014.One hundred and fifty-six emergency patients, who had 1st molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, participated in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups by random allocation. One group received 4% articaine buccal infiltration and the other group received inferior alveolar nerve block of 2% lidocaine. Subjects’self-reported pain response was recorded on Heft Parker Visual Analogue Scale after local anaesthetic administration during access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation.Mean age of subjects was 31.46 ±10.994 years. The success rate of 4% buccal infiltration was 76.9%; whereas the success rate of 2% lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block was 62.8%. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.4% articaine buccal infiltration can be considered a viable alternative to 2% lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in securing successful pulpal anaesthesia for endodontic therapy.

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