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Riesen P.,ETH Zurich | Strozzi T.,Gamma Remote Sensing Research and Consulting AG | Bauder A.,ETH Zurich | Wiesmann A.,Gamma Remote Sensing Research and Consulting AG | Funk M.,ETH Zurich
Journal of Glaciology | Year: 2011

We report measurements using a portable real aperture radar (Gamma Portable Radar Interferometer (GPRI)) for interferometric imaging of the surface ice motion on Gornergletscher, Switzerland, during the drainage of the adjacent ice-marginal lake Gornersee. The GPRI tracked the surface ice motion in line of sight over an area of ∼3 km2 down-glacier of Gornersee almost continuously during the drainage event. The displacement maps derived from the acquired interferograms capture the spatial distribution of the surface ice motion. Due to fast acquisition times of the microwave images, the GPRI was able to record sub-daily variations of the ice displacements, most likely caused by the impact of the Gornersee drainage on the ice motion of Gornergletscher. In situ point measurements of the ice displacement agree reasonably well with the results obtained by the GPRI and highlight the use of the GPRI for high-resolution measurements of glacier surface ice motion.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.1.1-07 | Award Amount: 2.48M | Year: 2013

APHORISM project proposes the development and testing of two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data. The aim is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved Copernicus products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. The first method, APE A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping, concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. We can find a wide literature and projects concerning such issue, but usually the approach are only based on change detection techniques and classifications algorithms. The novelty of APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by InSAR time series to measure surface movements, shakemaps obtained from seismological data, and vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms. The second method deals with volcanic crisis management. The method, MACE - Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation, concerns the exploitation of GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) sensor platform, LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite sensors and ground measures to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to characterise the volcanic ash clouds. The basic idea of MACE consists of an improvement of volcanic ash retrievals at the spacetime scale by using both the LEO and GEO estimations and in-situ data. Indeed the standard ash thermal infrared retrieval is integrated with data coming from a wider spectral range from visible to microwave. The ash detection is also extended in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. APE and MACE methods have been defined in order to provide products oriented toward the next ESA Sentinels satellite missions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2013.1.1-06;SPA.2013.1.1-07 | Award Amount: 2.92M | Year: 2013

The Sentinel- satellite series aims at frequent global coverage of the Earth surface in full spectrum of remote sensing. This enables the use of well-established satellite products, built up with earlier more research oriented satellites, to be used for the benefit of people in six core areas of Copernicus/GMES: security, land monitoring, climate change, atmosphere monitoring, emergency management and marine environment monitoring. The SEN3APP- project addresses three of these, namely climate change, land monitoring and security. SEN3APP is concerned with the development, implementation, operationalization and validation of Sentinel data processing lines for cryospheric (terrestrial) and land cover/phenology applications. Both global and regional applications are included, focusing to high latitudes of the Earth and other parts of the cryosphere.The processing lines will utilize SAR and medium/high resolution optical/IR-range data from Sentinels 1, 2 and 3. An essential aspect of the project is the development and harmonization of data processing modules/routines in order to facilitate new European satellite data processing capabilities for the European and global user community. For selected applications/products, the processing lines will also provide the automated validation tools. The processing lines to be designed and implemented contain distributed systems with contributions of the project partners. Operational capabilities of FMI Sodankyl satellite data center are applied to host part of the infrastructure and also complete processing lines. The overall objective of the proposed project is to provide end-users with products and services relevant to: Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP): land surface processes and albedo Local/regional scale climate change studies and planning of adaptation strategies Ecosystem studies & assessment of ecosystem services Evaluation of nutrient leaching caused by different land use and management practices for implementation of Water Framework directive objectives Hydrological forecasting and monitoring including hydro-power industry, flood prevention and water resources assessment Carbon balance monitoring and assessment Environmental monitoring including disasters, forest diseases and crop yield Construction and logistics as to soil frost and permafrost (roads, buildings, timber collection)


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.1.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.21M | Year: 2011

PanGeo is a service proposed in response to FP7 GMES Downstream Call 3 (released July 2009). The objective of PanGeo is to enable free and open access to geohazard information in support of GMES. This will be achieved by the generation of a validated Geohazard Data Layer supported by a Geohazard Summary for 52 of the largest towns listed in the GMES Land Themes Urban Atlas involving all 27 countries of the EU. Upon user enquiry, a PanGeo web-portal will automatically integrate the geohazard data with the Urban Atlas to highlight the polygons influenced. The datasets will be made discoverable, accessible and useable via a distributed web-map system as built and demonstrated by OneGeology Europe (www.onegeology-europe.eu). The key users of PanGeo are anticipated as: Local Authority planners and regulators who are concerned with managing development risk, National geological surveys and geoscience institutes who are obliged to collect geohazard data for public benefit, Policy-makers concerned with assessing and comparing European geological risk, much as the Urban Atlas data is used to compare the landcover/use status of European towns. Products will be made by integrating: a) interpreted InSAR terrain-motion data (derived from existing projects, e.g. ESA GSE Terrafirma plus new processing), b) geological information, and c) the landcover and landuse data contained within the Urban Atlas. The integration and interpretation, plus a validation of key features observed, will be made by the corresponding national Geological Survey for the towns concerned. It is planned to deliver the service for two Urban Atlas towns in each country of the EU (Luxembourg and Cyprus only 1), equalling fifty-two towns in total. The geological survey concerned will choose the towns for processing from the Urban Atlas list using their own knowledge as to where the information will be of most use, probably the largest towns, which, when extrapolated, would equal (13% of total EU urban population). User input to design will be facilitated by the Surveys contracted into the project and initiation of Local Authority Feedback Group. Terrafirma has shown the potential for the self-sustainability of services providing InSAR-derived terrain-motion data, as 30% of users have gone on to procure further product on a commercial basis. In PanGeo, it is anticipated that, by adding considerably more value as described above, and promoting the clear benefits of such key environmental information, that the local authorities of neighbouring towns will begin to demand similar.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.4.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 8.67M | Year: 2011

Today, countries use a wide variety of methods to monitor the carbon cycle and it is difficult to compare data from country to country and to get a clear global picture. The current global observational and modelling capabilities allow us to produce estimates of carbon budget at different level (from local to global) but many uncertainties still remain. Decision makers need now more than ever systematic, consistent and transparent data, information and tools for an independent and reliable verification process of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. Therefore higher quality and quantity of CO2 and CH4 data, from different domains and with an enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, need to be collected by a globally integrated observation and analysis system. This can be obtained by the coordinated Global Carbon Observation and Analysis System that this project aims at designing, addressing the climate targets of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) toward building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for carbon. Specific objectives of the GEOCARBON project are: Provide an aggregated set of harmonized global carbon data information (integrating the land, ocean, atmosphere and human dimension) Develop improved Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation Systems (CCDAS) Define the specifications for an operational Global Carbon Observing System Provide improved regional carbon budgets of Amazon and Central Africa Provide comprehensive and synthetic information on the annual sources and sinks of CO2 for the globe and for large ocean and land regions Improve the assessment of global CH4 sources and sinks and develop the CH4 observing system component Provide an economic assessment of the value of an enhanced Global Carbon Observing System Strengthen the effectiveness of the European (and global) Carbon Community participation in the GEO system


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-ITN | Award Amount: 3.50M | Year: 2011

GIONET will create a European Centre of Excellence in the training of early stage researchers in the Earth Observation to provide skilled personnel for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. The principal aims of this distributed centre will be to: Provide a broad postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). Enable access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centres and market leaders in the private sector. Develop a collaborative training network, through the placement of students supported by the grant for periods in other European institutions, and by hosting nationally funded students. Provide a flexible training environment with personal development planning, that early stage researchers can adapt to their cultural, disciplinary and gender needs and in respect of their national education systems. Key elements of the research and training programme will include fundamental Earth Observation Science, foundations of GMES pre-operational applications (land cover and change, forestry, urban mapping, biophysical parameters, emergency services). A more adaptable corpus of early-career researchers, capable of fulfilling the needs of the European GMES land monitoring core services, and able to become future leaders in these fields, whether in the research domain or the private sector. Researchers with excellent employability across a range of disciplines and outside academic research environments in organisations such as GMES user and stakeholder organisations, and private sector companies delivering the GMES services.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.1.1-01 | Award Amount: 2.83M | Year: 2011

The project is aimed at developing, implementing and validating a standardized and sustainable service on snow and land ice monitoring as a Downstream Service within GMES in a value added chain with the Land Monitoring Core Services. CryoLand will provide geospatial products on snow cover, glaciers, and lake/river ice derived from Earth observation satellite data. CryoLand will build upon, integrate and widen structural and technical capabilities of the project partners who have long term experience in running operational and pre-operational services on snow and ice. Users will play a key role in the definition of service requirements and in the validation of the products and services. A user group will be set up, and user training on use of products and electronic interfaces will be performed. Snow and ice products in near-real time delivery will be supplied with pan-European coverage, as well as with national and regional coverage. The project developments will build upon tools and processing lines that are available at partners enterprises. The portfolio of snow and ice products will be improved and augmented to better match the user requirements. An important part of the project will be the design, development and implementation of a network system for CryoLand services that will ensure interoperability of infrastructure by compliance with INSPIRE and GEOSS, and by integration with the Land Monitoring Core Services, the GMES Space Component Data Access service, and the required in-situ and reference data access. Full end-to-end tests and verification will be performed for the products and services in pre-operational environment, based on rigorous procedures and protocols for testing, validation and qualification. During the project second phase full performance demonstration of the system and comprehensive promotion and dissemination work is planned in order to prepare for the transition to a self-sustained operational snow and land ice monitoring service.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2009.1.1.01 | Award Amount: 4.71M | Year: 2010

DORIS is an advanced downstream service for the detection, mapping, monitoring and forecasting of ground deformations, that integrates traditional and innovative Earth Observation (EO) and ground based (non-EO) data and technologies. The service delivers innovative products tailored for Civil Defense authorities. DORIS integrates state-of-the-art technological and scientific capabilities with existing European upstream services, complies with guidelines provided by the Emergency Response Core Services Interdisciplinary Group, and is linked to existing Core Services, including SAFER and GMES EMERGENCY. DORIS goes beyond the state-of-the-art technologies used to detect, map, monitor and forecast ground deformations. DORIS uses the unique ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT C-band SAR archives to provide unprecedented, very long time-series of ground deformations. DORIS evaluates new SAR sensors, including ALOS, COSMO-SkyMed and TERRASAR-X, exploiting the different bands (L/X), the significantly reduced revisiting time, and the higher spatial resolution offered by these sensors. DORIS moves forward the integration of satellite and ground-based SAR interferometry, coupled with GPS measurements and geophysical probing. DORIS exploits multi-spectral images to map ground deformations, to identify the elements at risk, and for dynamic risk scenarios design. Finally, DORIS investigates the possibility of using thermal images for the assessment of landslide susceptibility and hazard. DORIS will be tested in six study areas in Europe. Successful application of the service in these areas guarantees that the downstream service will work in Europe. DORIS will provide a business model for long term self-sustainability of the service; the project is proposed by a unique team of public administrations, research institutes, and enterprises with experience in EO technologies for Civil Defence applications. DORIS favors knowledge and technology transfer, and will stimulate European competitiveness.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA-2007-1.1-01 | Award Amount: 40.31M | Year: 2009

SAFER aims at implementing preoperational versions of the Emergency Response Core Service. SAFER will reinforce European capacity to respond to emergency situations: fires, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, humanitarian crisis. The main goal is the upgrade of the core service and the validation of its performance with 2 priorities: First priority is the short term improvement of response when crisis occurs, with the rapid mapping capacity after disastrous events, including the relevant preparatory services (reference maps). For validation purposes, the project will deliver as from 2008 services at full scale for real events or during specific exercises. The main performance criterion is the response time. RTD work addresses technical, operational and organisational issues. The content of this first action is consistent with the definition of the preparatory action recently decided. The second priority is the extension to core service components before and after the crisis. It targets the longer term service evolution, through the provision of thematic products, to be added in the portfolio of services. The main performance criterion is the added-value of products with risk-specific information. In SAFER, thematic products will cover mainly the meteorological and geophysical risks. SAFER includes also some transverse RDT actions, with the objective to increase added-value of the overall service chain. Users involvement is a key driver and a specific task addresses the federation of the key users, both for interventions in Europe and outside Europe. The emphasis put on quality assurance and validation methodology is reflected in the work plan. The consortium is built around a core team of European service providers, already involved in the former or ongoing projects, in the frame of FP6 or ESA programmes. A wide network of scientific partners and service providers will extend the European dimension, in particular in the new member states.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: GALILEO-3-2014 | Award Amount: 1.31M | Year: 2015

Biomass mapping has gained increased interest for bioenergy, climate research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (e.g. REDD initiative). However, continuous deforestation activity and forest management requires frequent and accurate monitoring which can be expensive and difficult to attain. In Brazil, optical satellite data is typically used by government but even such does not allow accurate enough mapping due cloud coverage, requiring combination of other sources such as in-situ and air-borne measurements. Furthermore, satellite radar signals can penetrate clouds but still today the spatial resolution is not sufficient. In COREGAL, a low cost unmanned fixed-plane Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and service for biomass mapping will allow wide scale mapping in the Brazilian context of forest management. A first of a kind combined Position-Reflectometry Galileo receiver will be developed as main sensor for platform positioning and biomass estimation, the latter using reflected GNSS signals (also called GNSS-R) on tree canopies. High positioning accuracy (centimetre level) is required for surface point reflection determination, which is challenging for remote areas where no GNSS infrastructure is available as in the case of many forests in Brazil. However, Galileo AltBOC E5 signals offer unprecedented pseudorange measurement quality which can be used for novel high accuracy positioning. The UAV will be equipped and tested with a COREGAL receiver and optical cameras for aerial mapping and biomass estimation, enabling wide scale low cost mapping: UAV mapping is at least one order of magnitude lower cost than manned air-borne missions while GNSS-R can be seen as bi-static radar replacing expensive, heavy and power consuming radars. The consortium includes universities and companies for successful services and technology exploitation.

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