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Tanase M.A.,University of Zaragoza | Santoro M.,Gamma Remote Sensing AG | Wegmuller U.,Gamma Remote Sensing AG | de la Riva J.,University of Zaragoza | Perez-Cabello F.,University of Zaragoza
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2010

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been investigated to determine the relationship between burn severity and interferometric coherence at three sites affected by forest fires in a hilly Mediterranean environment. Repeat-pass SAR images were available from the TerraSAR-X, ERS-1/2, Envisat ASAR and ALOS PALSAR sensors. Coherence was related to measurements of burn severity (Composite Burn Index) and remote sensing estimates expressed by the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) index. In addition, the effects of topography and weather on coherence estimates were assessed. The analysis for a given range of local incidence angle showed that the co-polarized coherence increases with the increase of burn severity at X- and C-band whereas cross-polarized coherence was practically insensitive to burn severity. Higher sensitivity to burn severity was found at L-band for both co- and cross-polarized channels. The association strength between coherence and burn severity was strongest for images acquired under stable, dry environmental conditions. When the local incidence angle is accounted for the determination coefficients increased from 0.6 to 0.9 for X- and C-band. At L-band the local incidence angle had less influence on the association strength to burn severity. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Tanase M.A.,University of Zaragoza | Perez-Cabello F.,University of Zaragoza | De La Riva J.,University of Zaragoza | Santoro M.,GAMMA Remote Sensing AG
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

TerraSAR-X (TSX) dual-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from a test site in Spain have been investigated to determine the relationship between forest burn severity and SAR backscatter. The role of the local incidence angle on the backscatter coefficient has been also studied. Burn severity was estimated by means of composition burn index plots and the remotely sensed differenced normalized burn ratio index. To infer the potential of the TSX data for burn severity assessment, the determination coefficients obtained from linear regression analysis have been used. At horizontal transmit horizontal receive (HH) polarization, backscatter increased for slopes oriented toward the sensor and areas affected by high burn severity, whereas, at horizontal transmit vertical receive (HV) polarization, higher backscatter occurred for slopes oriented away from the sensor in areas of low burn severity. The dependence of the backscatter coefficient on topography for areas affected by forest fire has been confirmed. The HH backscatter presented a clear descending trend with the increase in local incidence angle, whereas the HV backscatter presented an ascending trend. The determination coefficients showed that, at HH polarization, better estimates of burn severity are obtained at low local incidence angles, whereas, for HV polarization, the best estimates are obtained at high local incidence angles. The dual-polarized X-band SAR data showed potential for burn severity estimation in the Mediterranean environment if local incidence angle is accounted for. © 2009 IEEE.

Tanase M.A.,University of Melbourne | Santoro M.,Gamma Remote Sensing AG | Aponte C.,University of Melbourne | De La Riva J.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Fully polarimetric C- and L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data have been investigated to determine the relationship between polarimetric target decomposition components and forest burn severity over two sites located in a Mediterranean environment. The dependence of the polarimetric decomposition metrics on SAR acquisition geometry and environmental conditions was also analyzed at C-band. Multiple linear regression models with interactions (i.e., the incidence angle was included as a predictor variable and its interaction with the radar metrics was accounted for as a multiplicative effect) were used to quantify burn severity retrieval accuracy. According to our experiment, we found that for steep SAR acquisition geometries C-band polarimetric components related to surface scattering mechanisms had increased sensitivity to burn severity levels, while for datasets acquired with more grazing geometries the polarimetric components related to volume scattering and dihedral scattering mechanisms were more correlated with burn severity levels. At L-band only volume and dihedral scattering related decomposition components provided significant relationships with burn severity levels. Relatively low burn severity estimation errors (less than 20% of burn severity range) were obtained for all datasets, with L-band data presenting the highest sensitivity to fire effects. Using a single regression model provided sufficient accuracy for burn severity estimation when taking into account the local incidence angle. The use of fully polarimetric data improved the estimation accuracy of forest burn severity with respect to backscatter intensities by a small margin for our study sites. However, since backscatter intensity metrics already provide high retrieval accuracies, whatever improvement was bound to be low. © 2013 IEEE.

Frey O.,ETH Zurich | Frey O.,GAMMA Remote Sensing AG | Meier E.,University of Zürich
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

In this paper, a time-domain back-projection based tomographic processing approach to a 3-D reconstruction grid is detailed, with the focusing in the third dimension being either modified versions of multilook standard beamforming, robust Capon beamforming, or multiple signal classification. The novel feature of the proposed approach compared to previous synthetic aperture radar (SAR) tomography approaches is that it allows for an approximation-free height-dependent calculation of the sample covariance matrix by exploiting the azimuth-focused data on the 3-D reconstruction grid. The method is applied to experimental multibaseline quad-pol SAR data at L-and P-bands acquired by German Aerospace Center's (DLR) E-SAR sensor: Tomographic images of a partially forested area, including a 3-D voxel plot that visualizes the very high level of detail of the tomographic image, are shown, and an analysis of the focusing performance is given for the full as well as reduced synthetic aperture in the normal direction. © 2011 IEEE.

Frey O.,University of Zürich | Frey O.,ETH Zurich | Frey O.,GAMMA Remote Sensing AG | Meier E.,University of Zürich
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Forest canopies are semitransparent to microwaves at both L-and P-bands. Thus, a number of scattering sources and different types of scattering mechanisms may contribute to a single range cell of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image. By appropriately combining the SAR data of multiple parallel flight paths, a large 2-D aperture is synthesized, which allows for tomographic imaging of the 3-D structure of such semitransparent media and the underlying ground. A separate paper deals with the actual tomographic imaging part that leads to the 3-D data cube. In particular, three focusing techniques are described and analyzed: multilook beamforming, robust Capon beamforming, and multiple signal classification beamforming. In this paper, the resulting data products obtained by tomographically focusing two airborne multibaseline SAR data sets of a partially forested area, one at L-band and another at P-band, are subject to a detailed analysis with respect to the location and the type of backscattering sources. In particular, the following aspects are investigated: 1) The forest structure, as obtained from the vertical profiles of intensities at sample plot locations within the forest, is compared to the height distribution of the top of the forest canopy, as derived from airborne laser scanning data, and profiles are presented for all polarimetric channels and focusing techniques, as well as at both frequencies; 2) the type and location of scattering mechanisms are analyzed as functions of height for the two frequencies, namely, L-and P-bands, and using the polarimetric channels, as well as the Pauli and Cloude-Pottier decompositions thereof; and 3) the accuracy of the ground elevation estimation obtained from the different focusing techniques and the two frequencies is assessed with the help of a lidar-derived digital elevation model. © 2011 IEEE.

Tosi L.,Tesa | Tosi L.,University of Padua | Teatini P.,GAMMA Remote Sensing AG | Strozzi T.,Tesa
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

We detected land displacements of Venice by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry using ERS and ENVISAT C-band and TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed X-band acquisitions over the periods 1992-2010 and 2008-2011, respectively. By reason of the larger observation period, the C-band sensors was used to quantify the long-term movements, i.e. the subsidence component primarily ascribed to natural processes. The high resolution X-band satellites reveal a high effectiveness to monitor short-time movements as those induced by human activities. Interpolation of the two datasets and removal of the C-band from the X-band map allows discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic components of the subsidence. A certain variability characterizes the natural subsidence (0.9 ± 0.7âmm/yr), mainly because of the heterogeneous nature and age of the lagoon subsoil. The 2008 displacements show that man interventions are responsible for movements ranging from-10 to 2âmm/yr. These displacements are generally local and distributed along the margins of the city islands.

Wegmuller U.,Gamma Remote Sensing AG | Walter D.,Clausthal University of Technology | Spreckels V.,RAG Aktiengesellschaft | Werner C.L.,Gamma Remote Sensing AG
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

In the past, the application of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) was primarily possible in the case of slow (less than a few centimeters per year) uniform movements. In this paper, we show how PSI permits the monitoring of relatively fast (including rates up to > 50cm/year) and nonuniform movements using TerraSAR-X repeat observations over deep-level mining. To enable this, parts of the PSI methodology were adapted to the special characteristics of the example studied. Apart from a description of the methodology used and the result achieved, error considerations and a validation of the result with in situ measurements are included. © 2009 IEEE.

Caduff R.,University of Bern | Caduff R.,Gamma Remote Sensing AG | Rieke-Zapp D.,Breuckmann GmbH
Photogrammetric Record | Year: 2014

This paper describes a general workflow for the registration of terrestrial radar interferometric data with 3D point clouds derived from terrestrial photogrammetry and structure from motion. After the determination of intrinsic and extrinsic orientation parameters, data obtained by terrestrial radar interferometry were projected on point clouds and then on the initial photographs. Visualisation of slope deformation measurements on photographs provides an easily understandable and distributable information product, especially of inaccessible target areas such as steep rock walls or in rockfall run-out zones. The suitability and error propagation of the referencing steps and final visualisation of four approaches are compared: (a) the classic approach using a metric camera and stereo-image photogrammetry; (b) images acquired with a metric camera, automatically processed using structure from motion; (c) images acquired with a digital compact camera, processed with structure from motion; and (d) a markerless approach, using images acquired with a digital compact camera using structure from motion without artificial ground control points. The usability of the completely markerless approach for the visualisation of high-resolution radar interferometry assists the production of visualisation products for interpretation. © 2014 The Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Santoro M.,GAMMA Remote Sensing AG | Wegmuller U.,GAMMA Remote Sensing AG
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) metrics are assessed to map open water bodies. High temporal variability and low minimum value in a time series of Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) Wide Swath Mode (WSM) backscatter measurements characterize open water bodies with respect to other land cover types. Confusion occurs in the case of steep terrain (slope angle > 10°), less than 10 backscatter observations and for mixed pixels with a water fraction. The behavior of the two SAR multi-temporal metrics is consistent at six study areas in Europe and Central Siberia. A simple thresholding algorithm applied to the multi-temporal SAR metrics to map open water bodies performs with overall accuracies above 90% in the case of pure pixels of water or land. The accuracy decreases when mixed pixels are accounted for in the reference dataset and for increasing land fraction in the reference samples. An overall accuracy of approximately 80% was obtained for a 50% threshold of the water fraction. Omissions of water areas occur mostly along shorelines. Specific conditions of the land surface can distort the minimum, causing commission in the water class. The use of a low order rank or percentile instead of the lowest backscatter value can reduce such commission error. © 2013 IEEE.

Santoro M.,GAMMA Remote Sensing AG | Wegmuller U.,GAMMA Remote Sensing AG | Askne J.I.H.,Chalmers University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

Interferometric observations between the European Remote Sensing, ERS-2, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) are unique since they are characterized by a short repeat-pass interval (28 min) and a perpendicular baseline of approximately 2 km. In vegetated areas, this configuration should preserve from strong temporal decorrelation and enhance the sensitivity of coherence and SAR interferometric (InSAR) phase to volumes with small heights. This assumption could be tested with the data acquired during the dedicated ERS-Envisat Tandem mission on October 15, 2007, over the Seeland region, Switzerland. Five maize fields and one sunflower field presented lower coherence and offsets of the interferometric phase, i.e. height, with respect to neighboring bare fields. To gain understanding on the interferometric signatures, the interferometric water cloud model was used to simulate coherence and InSAR height for the maize fields. Both the coherence and the In-SAR height present clear dependence upon vegetation height and exhibit strong consistency. Simulations showed that the modeled coherence and InSAR height are most sensitive to the two-way attenuation and the temporal coherence of the vegetation. The best correspondence between the observed and modeled InSAR parameters was obtained with two-way attenuation values between 2 and 4 dB/m (corresponding to an extinction between 1 and 2 dB/m) and high temporal coherence of the vegetation (above 0.6), with this being due to the very stable conditions of the weather during the 28-min interval between image acquisitions. © 2009 IEEE.

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