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Ballesteros C.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos | Sage M.,Game And Wildlife Agency Office National Of La Chasse Et Of La Faune Sauvage | Fisher P.,Landcare Research | Massei G.,UK Environment Agency | And 5 more authors.
Mammal Review

Bait delivery of vaccines, toxicants or contraceptives to target wild mammals is an essential component of management strategies worldwide. Marking agents are required to enable the identification of individuals that consume the baits in order to evaluate and optimize the cost-efficacy of baiting campaigns. Ethyl-iophenoxic acid (Et-IPA) is an organic iodine-containing compound that has been used increasingly since the 1980s as a bait marker. It binds to proteins in animal blood and therefore can be detected indirectly by measuring plasma or serum iodine concentration or directly by measuring plasma or serum Et-IPA concentration with liquid chromatography. Methyl-iophenoxic acid and propyl-iophenoxic acid can also be used to provide quantitative information on temporal or spatial patterns of bait consumption in a range of mammalian species. We review the suitability of Et-IPA and its analogues as bait markers in mammals. The highly variable persistence of analogues and in species highlights the need for calibration testing of each compound as a marker for each species and for each proposed use before starting a bait delivery trial. After absorption, the fate of IPAs (by metabolism, distribution and excretion) is variable, but most are bound to plasma proteins. Marking efficacy is therefore high. The implications of exposure to IPAs for predators and humans were analyzed to evaluate its safety for delivery to wild mammals. Although it is highly unlikely that secondary exposure through ingestion could involve sufficiently large quantities to produce adverse effects, further studies are necessary to assess long-term effects after chronic exposure to these compounds. IPAs can mark animal serum for long periods of time, and improvements in detection methods for them are currently being developed, so that they are a good choice for oral baiting field experiments with mammals. © 2012 Mammal Society/Blackwell Publishing. Source

Sage M.,Game And Wildlife Agency Office National Of La Chasse Et Of La Faune Sauvage | Fourel I.,VetAgro Sup | Lahoreau J.,Sainte Croix Animal Park | Siat V.,Game And Wildlife Agency Office National Of La Chasse Et Of La Faune Sauvage | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

The bait-marker iophenoxic acid (IPA) and its derivatives are increasingly used for evaluating and optimizing the cost-effectiveness of baiting campaigns on wildlife, particularly on game species such as the wild boar. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of the three main IPA derivatives ethyl, methyl and propyl-IPA measured on thoracic liquid extracts (TLE) of hunted wild boars may be representative of two exposure doses, 40 and 200 mg, from 20 to 217 days after ingestion. Then we developed a method of detection of the three IPA derivatives by LC/ESI-MS-MS in muscle and liver to evaluate the suitability of these two other tissues for monitoring the marked bait consumption and for measuring available residues in the meat of marked animals. Three semi-captive wild boars received 40 mg of each IPA derivative, three received 200 mg, and three, as controls, did not receive IPA. Blood serum was sampled 20, 197 or 217 days after IPA exposure according to animals and to the derivative. Wild boars were shot by gun after the different times of serum sampling times, and TLE, muscle and liver were sampled. Our results suggest that TLE is not a relevant tissue for quantitatively expressing IPA exposure. Due to interference, no analytical method was validated on TLE containing digestive material. On the other hand, quantifications in the muscle and particularly in the liver could discriminate wild boars that had ingested the two IPA doses from 20 days until 7 months after exposure, especially for the two long term markers ethyl and propyl-IPA. So IPA quantifications in the liver sampled on hunted animals appear to be a reliable tool for monitoring bait consumption in the field at a large scale. Nevertheless, whatever the ingested dose, ethyl- and propyl-IPA concentrations measured in the muscle and the liver of tested animals until 217 days after exposure, remained higher than 0. 01 mg/kg, the Maximal Residue Limit (MRL) is recommended for molecules for which no toxicological data are available. Based on the range of IPA residues available in these two tissues, implications for humans consuming marked animals are discussed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

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