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Ilyina T.S.,Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology

Filamentous bacteriophages of the genus Inovirus (Inoviridae) infect a number of gram-negative, and some gram-positive, bacteria. This review discusses contemporary data on the role of filamentous bacteriophages in the virulence and evolution of known pathogenic bacteria, such as V. cholerae, Yersinia pestis, Neisseria meningitides, Escherichia coli O18: K1: H7, Pseudomonas aruginosa, and some pathogens of cultivars. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc. Source

Ilyina T.S.,Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology

The recently discovered method of horizontal distribution of bacterial genes with ISCR atypical insertion sequences is reviewed using the example of drug-resistance genes. The mechanism of transposition of such elements including rolling circle replication, formation of autonomous nonreplicable circular structures, and homologous recombination provides mobilization of any section of the adjacent DNA. ISCR elements represent a more powerful gene mobilization system than transposons and integrons and provide formation of groups of mobile genes, including antibiotic resistance genes of pathogenic bacteria. The structure and functions of ISCR elements are discussed together with their similarity and dissimilarity to IS91-like elements and their role in emergence of blocks of multiple antibiotic resistance genes and their contribution to evolution of bacteria and plasmids. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc. Source

Voronina A.L.,Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
Molekuliarnaia genetika, mikrobiologiia i virusologiia

88 cultures of microorganisms referred to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) during initial identification were analyzed by multilocus sequencing (Multilocus Sequence Typing, MLST). 13 genotypes (sequence type, ST) were detected, 9 of them (708, 709, 710, 711, 712, 714, 727, 728, 729) were identified for the first time. Two new alleles for the gene trpB (357, 358), one of the genes atpD (306) and gltB (352) were detected and registered. It was found that strains of 2 genotypes (711, 712) belong to the species B. multivorans, 1 (ST102) - B. contaminans, 1 (ST51) - B. stabilis, 1 (ST729) - B. vietnamiensis. Most strains of the sample, representing 8 genotypes (208, 241, 728, 727, 708, 709, 710, 714), belong to the species B. cenocepacia. Identified genotypes differ in the global spread of the world: 4 genotype (51, 102, 208, 241) have intercontinental distribution, 1 (712) - intra. It is shown that strains causing nosocomial infections, in most cases refer to genotypes 728 and 708. Epidemiologically significant in respect of patients with cystic fibrosis should recognize genotype 709, detected in strains isolated from patients in seven federal districts (FD) of Russia. The Bcc strains of genotypes 241 (B. cenocepacia) and 729 (B. vietnamiensis) were isolated from the patients of the Far Eastern FD. They are not typical for other FD Russia. The possibility of concomitant infection in cystic fibrosis patient with two genotypes 709 - epidemiologically significant and 708 - nosocomial, was indicated. The long-termpersistence of a single genotype strain in the organism of patients with cystic fibrosis was demonstrated as for Bcc species B. cenocepacia (ST 709), so for B. multivorans (ST712). The possibility of transferring the strain Bcc, typical for nosocomial environment to patient with cystic fibrosis at surgery was observed. Source

Ospelnikova T.P.,Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
Voprosy Virusologii

The role of interferon in influenza and herpes infections, general patterns of the Interferon system in these diseases, the identification of interferon deficiency, the possibility of their correction with the immune active drugs, including interferon inducers combining antiviral immunomodulatory interferon effects with etiopathogenic corrective mode of action, are discussed. Clinical values of faster recovery confirm the suitability of their application in the immunocompromised patients. Source

Osidak M.S.,Imtek Company | Osidak E.O.,Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology | Akhmanova M.A.,Imtek Company | Domogatsky S.P.,Imtek Company | Domogatskaya A.S.,Matrix
Current Pharmaceutical Design

The ability of a human artery to pass through 150 million liters of blood sustaining 2 billion pulsations of blood pressure with minor deterioration depends on unique construction of the arterial wall. Viscoelastic properties of this construction enable to re-seal the occuring damages apparently without direct immediate participance of the constituent cells. Collagen structures are considered to be the elements that determine the mechanoelastic properties of the wall in parallel with elastin responsible for elasticity and resilience. Collagen scaffold architecture is the function-dependent dynamic arrangement of a dozen different collagen types composing three distinct interacting forms inside the extracellular matrix of the wall. Tightly packed molecules of collagen types I, III, V provide high tensile strength along collagen fibrils but toughness of the collagen scaffold as a whole depends on molecular bonds between distinct fibrils. Apart of other macromolecules in the extracellular matrix (ECM), collagen-specific interlinks involve microfilaments of collagen type VI, meshwork-organized collagen type VIII, and FACIT collagen type XIV. Basement membrane collagen types IV, XV, XVIII and cell-associated collagen XIII enable transmission of mechanical signals between cells and whole artery matrix. Collagen scaffold undergoes continuous remodeling by decomposition promoted with MMPs and reconstitution from newly produced collagen molecules. Pulsatile stress-strain load modulates both collagen synthesis and MMP-dependent collagen degradation. In this way the ECM structure becomes adoptive to mechanical challenges. The mechanoelastic properties of the arterial wall are changed in atherosclerosis concomitantly with collagen turnover both type-specific and dependent on the structure. Improving the feedback could be another approach to restore sufficient blood circulation. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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